A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that becoming a mother implies a sharp decline in labor earnings, labor market participation, working hours and wage rate, while fathers’ outcomes remain unaffected.
GLO Discussion Paper No. 1152, 2022
The Motherhood Penalty in China: Having A Child Increases Gender Inequality in the Labor Market – Download PDF
by Zhang, Mingxue & Hou, Lingling & Wang, Yue
GLO Affiliate Yue Wang
Author Abstract: Using a comprehensive individual panel dataset in China and an event study method, we examined the effects of having a child on gender inequality from the perspectives of labor market outcomes and its mechanisms. Results show that becoming a mother implies a sharp decline in labor earnings, labor market participation, working hours and wage rate, while fathers’ outcomes remain unaffected. These outcomes are driven by two potential channels: career choices and social norms. After having a child, mothers have a higher likelihood for engaging in informal jobs and less possibility of being promoted if they work in the formal sector. Moreover, social norms towards gender roles lead mothers to devote more time to housework and babysit, which generate motherhood earnings penalty in labor market. Finally, well-being analysis shows that subjective happiness and life satisfaction of both males and females are barely not changed after childbirth, and females experience an increase in social status after child arrival.
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Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles
Just released: CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021)! LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK
GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers). Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.
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