Category Archives: Discussion Paper

Retirement, housing mobility, downsizing and neighbourhood quality – A causal investigation. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Ha Nguyen and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that retirement leads to a statistically significant and sizable increase in the probability of making a residential move or the likelihood of becoming outright homeowners.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 882, 2021

Retirement, housing mobility, downsizing and neighbourhood quality – A causal investigation Download PDF
by
Nguyen, Ha Trong & Mitrou, Francis & Zubrick, Stephen R.

GLO Fellow Ha Nguyen

Ha Nguyen

Author Abstract: This paper provides the first causal evidence on the impact of retirement on housing choices. Our empirical strategy exploits the discontinuity in the eligibility ages for state pension as an instrument for the endogenous retirement decision and controls for time-invariant individual characteristics. The results show that retirement leads to a statistically significant and sizable increase in the probability of making a residential move or the likelihood of becoming outright homeowners. We also find that individuals downsize both physically and financially and tend to move to better neighbourhoods or closer to the coast upon retirement. We additionally discover that some housing adjustments take place up to 6 years before retirement. Moreover, our results reveal significant heterogeneity in the retirement impact by gender, marital status, education, housing tenue, income and wealth. Within couple households, housing mobility choices are primarily influenced by the wife’s retirement while housing downsizing decisions are only affected by the husband’s retirement. The results suggest that failing to address the endogeneity of retirement often under-states the retirement impact on such housing arrangements.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Financial education for youth: A randomized evaluation in Uruguay. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Fernando Borraz and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper evaluates the impact of an economic and financial education program targeted to senior high-school students and finds positive effects.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 881, 2021

Financial education for youth: A randomized evaluation in Uruguay Download PDF
by
Borraz, Fernando & Caro, Ana & Caño-Guiral, Maira & Roa, María José

GLO Fellow Fernando Borraz

Fernando Borraz

Author Abstract: Using data from a randomized control trial in Uruguay, we evaluate the impact of an economic and financial education program targeted to senior high-school students. The program is based on an innovative playful approach workshop about monetary policy and financial supervision. We find that the workshop has a positive and significant impact on student knowledge. Our results shed light on the importance of economic and financial education for the youth in developing countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Poverty in Russia: A Bird’s-Eye View of Trends and Dynamics in the Past Quarter of Century. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Kseniya Abanokova and GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that poverty in Russia has been steadily decreasing, with most of the poor having a transient rather than a chronic nature.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 880, 2021

Poverty in Russia: A Bird’s-Eye View of Trends and Dynamics in the Past Quarter of Century Download PDF
by
Abanokova, Kseniya & Dang, Hai-Anh H.

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: Hardly any recent study exists that broadly reviews poverty trends over time for Russia. Analyzing the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys between 1994 and 2019, we offer an updated review of poverty trends and dynamics for the country over the past quarter of century. We find that poverty has been steadily decreasing, with most of the poor having a transient rather than a chronic nature. The bottom 20 percent of the income distribution averages an annual growth rate of 5 percent, which compares favorably with that of 3.3 percent for the whole population. Income growth, particularly the shares that are attributed to labor incomes and public transfers, have important roles in reducing poverty. Our findings are relevant to poverty and social protection policies.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Deteriorated sleep quality does not explain the negative impact of smartphone use on academic performance. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Suncica Vujic & Stijn Baert and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper using data of Belgian students finds no statistically significant mediating effect of sleep quality in the relationship between smartphone use and academic performance.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 879, 2021

Deteriorated sleep quality does not explain the negative impact of smartphone use on academic performance Download PDF
by
Amez, Simon & Vujić, Sunčica & Abrath, Margo & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellows Suncica Vujic & Stijn Baert

Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: University students’ smartphone use has recently been shown to negatively affect their academic performance. Surprisingly, research testing the empirical validity of potential mechanisms underlying this relationship is very limited. In particular, indirect effects of negative health consequences due to heavy smartphone use have never been investigated. To fill this gap, we investigate, for the first time, whether deteriorated sleep quality drives the negative impact on academic performance. To this end, we examine longitudinal data on 1,635 students at two major Belgian universities. Based on a combination of a random effects approach and seemingly unrelated regression, we find no statistically significant mediating effect of sleep quality in the relationship between smartphone use and academic performance.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Can a supranational medicines agency restore trust after vaccine suspensions? The case of Vaxzevria. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Andrea Albanese & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the impact of the European Medicines Agency’s 2021 March 18th statement assuring the public of the safety of Vaxzevria and the immediate reinstatement of the vaccine by most countries to find that survey respondents’ intention to get vaccinated substantially restored.

Andrea Albanese

GLO Discussion Paper No. 878, 2021

Can a supranational medicines agency restore trust after vaccine suspensions? The case of Vaxzevria Download PDF
by
Albanese, Andrea & Fallucchi, Francesco & Verheyden, Bertrand

GLO Fellow Andrea Albanese

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: Over the first half of March 2021, the majority of European governments suspended Astrazeneca’s Vaxzevria vaccine as a precaution following media reports of rare blood clots. We analyse the impact of the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) March 18th statement assuring the public of the safety of Vaxzevria and the immediate reinstatement of the vaccine by most countries on respondents’ intention to get vaccinated. By relying on survey data collected in Luxembourg and neighbouring areas between early March and mid-April, we observe that the willingness to be vaccinated was severely declining in the days preceding the EMA statement. We implement a regression discontinuity design exploiting the time at which respondents completed the survey and find that the vaccine reinstatement substantially restored vaccination intentions.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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How Collective Bargaining Shapes Poverty: New Evidence for Developed Countries. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Kevin Pineda-Hernández & GLO Fellows François Rycx & Melanie Volral.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that a poverty-reducing effect of collective bargaining institutions stems from the political strength of trade unions in promoting public social spending rather than from any direct effect on earnings inequalities.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 877, 2021

How Collective Bargaining Shapes Poverty: New Evidence for Developed Countries Download PDF
by
Pineda-Hernández, Kevin & Rycx, François & Volral, Mélanie

GLO Fellows François Rycx & Melanie Volral

Author Abstract: Although many studies point to the significant influence of collective bargaining institutions on earnings inequalities, evidence on how these institutions shape poverty rates across developed economies remains surprisingly scarce. It would be a mistake, though, to believe that the relationship between earnings inequalities and poverty is straightforward. Indeed, whereas earnings inequalities are measured at the individual level, poverty is calculated at the household level using equivalised (disposable) incomes. Accordingly, in most developed countries poverty is not primarily an issue of the working poor. This paper explicitly addresses the relationship between collective bargaining systems and working-age poverty rates in 24 developed countries over the period 1990-2015. Using an up-to-date and fine-grained taxonomy of bargaining systems and relying on state-of-the-art panel data estimation techniques, we find that countries with more centralised and/or coordinated bargaining systems display significantly lower working-age poverty rates than countries with largely or fully decentralised systems. However, this result only holds in a post-tax benefit scenario. Controlling for country-fixed effects and endogeneity, our estimates indeed suggest that the poverty-reducing effect of collective bargaining institutions stems from the political strength of trade unions in promoting public social spending rather than from any direct effect on earnings inequalities.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Do Elections Accelerate the COVID-19 Pandemic? Evidence from a Natural Experiment. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Ján Palguta and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper confirms for the Czech Republic that elections in 2020 propagated the spread of Covid-19.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 891, 2021

Do Elections Accelerate the COVID-19 Pandemic? Evidence from a Natural Experiment Download PDF
by
Ján Palguta & Levínský, René & Škoda, Samuel

Forthcoming: Journal of Population Economics

GLO Fellow Jan Palguta

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: Elections define representative democracies, but also produce spikes in physical mobility if voters need to travel to electoral rooms. In this paper, we examine whether large-scale, in-person elections propagate the spread of COVID-19. We exploit a natural experiment from the Czech Republic which biannually renews mandates in 1/3 of Senate constituencies rotating according to the 1995 election law. We show that in the second and third weeks after the 2020 elections (held on October 9-10), new COVID-19 infections grow significantly faster in voting compared to non-voting constituencies. A temporarily-related peak in hospital admissions and essentially no changes in test positivity rates suggest that the acceleration is not merely due to increased testing. The acceleration is absent in population above 65, consistently with strategic risk-avoidance by older voters. Our results have implications for postal voting reforms or postponing of large-scale, in-person (electoral) events during viral outbreaks.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Deeds or words? The local influence of anti-immigrant parties on foreigners’ flows in Italy. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Augusto Cerqua and Federico Zampollo.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the election of a mayor supported by an anti-immigrant coalition significantly affect immigrants’ location choices only when considering the most recent years.

Augusto Cerqua


GLO Discussion Paper No. 876, 2021

Deeds or words? The local influence of anti-immigrant parties on foreigners’ flows in Italy Download PDF
by
Cerqua, Augusto & Zampollo, Federico

GLO Fellow Augusto Cerqua

Author Abstract: We investigate the influence of anti-immigrant parties on foreigners’ location choices in Italy. Considering municipal elections from 2000 to 2018, we create a database that includes a scientific-based classification on the anti-/pro-immigration axis of all Italian political parties based on experts’ opinions. Via the adoption of a regression discontinuity design, we find that the election of a mayor supported by an anti-immigrant coalition significantly affect immigrants’ location choices only when considering the most recent years. This finding does not appear to be driven by the enactment of policies against immigrants but by an ‘inhospitality effect’, which got stronger over time due to the exacerbation of political propaganda at the national and local level.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Local inequalities of the COVID-19 crisis. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Augusto Cerqua & Marco Letta.

A new GLO Discussion Paper for Italy documents that the economic effects of the COVID-19 shock are dramatically unbalanced across the Italian territory and spatially uncorrelated with the epidemiological pattern of the first wave.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 875, 2021

Local inequalities of the COVID-19 crisis Download PDF
by
Cerqua, Augusto & Letta, Marco

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Fellows Augusto Cerqua & Marco Letta

Author Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of the first wave of the pandemic on the local economies of one of the hardest-hit countries, Italy. We combine quarterly local labor market data with the new machine learning control method for counterfactual building. Our results document that the economic effects of the COVID-19 shock are dramatically unbalanced across the Italian territory and spatially uncorrelated with the epidemiological pattern of the first wave. The heterogeneity of employment losses is associated with exposure to social aggregation risks and pre-existing labor market fragilities. Finally, we quantify the protective role played by the labor market interventions implemented by the government and show that, while effective, they disproportionately benefitted the most developed Italian regions. Such diverging trajectories and unequal policy effects call for a place-based policy approach that promptly addresses the uneven economic geography of the current crisis.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Does Paid Family Leave Save Infant Lives? Evidence from United States. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Feng Chen.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the implementation of a six-week paid family leave in California/USA reduced the post-neonatal mortality rate with larger effects for infants with married mothers and infant boys.


GLO Discussion Paper No. 874, 2021

Does Paid Family Leave Save Infant Lives? Evidence from United States Download PDF
by
Chen, Feng

GLO Affiliate Feng Chen

Author Abstract: One goal of the paid family leave (PFL) is to help working mothers balance their careers and family responsibilities and hence improve the well-being of their infants. However, most studies of PFL on early childhood outcomes have been based on the analyses of surviving infants. If PFL reduces infant deaths, such analyses would understate the effects. Using the linked birth and infant death data in the U.S. with a difference-in-differences framework, I find that the implementation of a six-week PFL in California reduced the post-neonatal mortality rate by 0.135, or it saved approximately 339 infant lives. The effects were driven by death from internal causes, and there were larger effects for infants with married mothers and infant boys. Additional robustness checks and placebo examinations indicate that the effect is not due to confounding factors or contemporary shocks but causal.

Featured image: Derek-Owens-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Labour Standards. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Morley Gunderson.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reflects and evaluates the literature on labour standards against the background of changes in the nature of labour , the workplace and societal needs.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 873, 2021

Labour Standards Download PDF
by
Gunderson, Morley

GLO Fellow Morley Gunderson

Author Abstract: This chapter deals with the question of whether labour standards are less relevant or more relevant for the new world of work which is vastly different from the old world of work when most labour standards were first established. The various rationales for labour standards are first outlined. This is followed by a discussion of the changing pressures in the labour market that emanate from various forces: the pressures affecting employers and hence their demand for labour; the changing nature of the supply of labour; changes in forms of employee representation and the legal and regulatory environment in which the parties operate; and changes in the workplace and human resource practices within firms. These pressures lead to a changing role and need for labour standards, generally increasing the need, but also tending to reduce the ability of governments to provide such standards. Some illustrative evidence of the impact of specific labour standards is outlined, followed by a discussion of labour standards in developing and emerging economies. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible elements of smart regulation in this area to deal with the difficult trade-off between the increased need for labour standards confronting the reduced ability of governments to provide such standards.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Run, graduate, run: Internationally mobile students’ reactions to changing political landscapes in Europe. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Reinhard Weisser.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that international students move away strongly in response to recent political factors suggesting a considerable loss for European economies.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 872, 2021

Run, graduate, run: Internationally mobile students’ reactions to changing political landscapes in Europe Download PDF
by
Weisser, Reinhard A.

GLO Affiliate Reinhard Weisser

Author Abstract: Over the last decades, Europe attracted an increasing number of internationally mobile students. The related influx of talent into European labour markets constituted an important factor to the knowledge economy. This research addresses the question whether changing political landscapes in Europe, e.g. an increasing scepticism concerning migrants or support for right-wing parties, translated into a diminishing attractiveness of European economies. To this end, international graduates’ staying behaviour in 28 European destination countries is investigated based on bilateral stay rates for almost 150 countries of origin in the years 2009 to 2019. Controlling for various immigration regimes and institutional settings, international graduates are found to display a high level of sensitivity with respect to political dynamics: A distinct dominance of the right political spectrum may lower the number of international graduates willing to stay by up to 50%. The effect is particularly strong in election years when voters’ political preferences become more salient. Eventually, this amounts to a considerable loss for European economies since international graduates have acquired destination country specific human capital and are easily integrated into host societies.

Featured image: Photo-by-j-zamora-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Why Making Promotion After a Burnout Is Like Boiling the Ocean. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Stijn Baert and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper identifies burnout stigma as a source of promotion discrimination.

Stijn Baert

GLO Discussion Paper No. 871, 2021

Why Making Promotion After a Burnout Is Like Boiling the Ocean Download PDF
by
Sterkens, Philippe & Baert, Stijn & Rooman, Claudia & Derous, Eva

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Recent studies have explored hiring discrimination as an obstacle to former burnout patients. Many workers, however, return to the same employer, where they face an even more severe aftermath of burnout syndrome: promotion discrimination. To our knowledge, we are the first to directly address this issue in research. More specifically, we conducted a vignette experiment with 406 genuine managers, testing the potential of the main burnout stigma theoretically described in the literature as potential mediators of promotion discrimination. Estimates reveal that compared to employees without an employment interruption, former burnout patients have no less than a 34.4% lower probability of receiving a promotion. Moreover, these employees are perceived as having low (1) leadership, (2) learning capacity, (3) motivation, (4) autonomy and (5) stress tolerance, as well as being (6) less capable of taking on an exemplary role, (7) having worse current and (8) future health, (9) collaborating with them is regarded more negatively, and (10) managers perceive them as having fewer options to leave the organisation if denied a promotion. Four of these perceptions, namely lower leadership capacities, stress tolerance, abilities to take on an exemplary role and chances of finding another job explain almost half the burnout effect on promotion probabilities.

Featured image: Morgan Basham on Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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The More the Gloomier: development of informal employment and its effect on wages in Turkey. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Anil Duman & Alper Duman.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies various aspects of the wage gaps between formal and informal sector workers in Turkey: The decline in informal employment is not uniform, returns to informality vary significantly, and the rise of white collar low skilled service jobs is mainly responsible for the increasing wage gap at the bottom end.

Anil Duman

GLO Discussion Paper No. 870, 2021

The More the Gloomier: development of informal employment and its effect on wages in Turkey Download PDF
by
Duman, Anil & Duman, Alper

GLO Fellow Anil Duman

Author Abstract: Various studies found wage gaps between formal and informal sector workers even after controlling for a number of individual and firm level characteristics. It has also been shown that earnings differentials across these sectors are quite stable over the years. While there is limited amount of research considering the same issues focusing on Turkish labor market, the development of wage gap between formal and informal employment has not been examined. In our paper, we carry this analysis for Turkey and estimate the wage gap between formal and informal sector workers by utilizing the Household Labor Force Survey (LFS) for the period of 2005 and 2019. There are three main findings; first, decline in informal employment is not uniform and especially after 2012 there is a slight increase in the share of informal jobs at the lower end of wage distribution. Second, we demonstrate that returns to informality vary significantly across quantiles even after a matching technique through inverse probability treatment weights are considered. While at the upper end of the distribution, the penalty is extremely small and stable over the years, at the bottom end, the informal sector considerably reduces wages, and the effect becomes larger over time. The negative and increasing penalty is observable well before the refugee inflows. The last part of our analysis looks at the occupational composition within formal and informal sectors over time and points out that the rise of white collar low skilled service (WCLS) jobs among informal employment is mainly responsible for the increasing wage gap for the workers at the bottom end.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Domestic Violence and Gender Stereotypes: Perceptions, Justifications, and Reactions. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Veronica Grembi and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Italian women that those with stronger stereotypes are more likely to state that they know a victim of violence but are not more likely to state that violence (physical or psychological) is widespread in their area of residence.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 869, 2021

Domestic Violence and Gender Stereotypes: Perceptions, Justifications, and Reactions Download PDF
by
Barili, Emilia & Grembi, Veronica & Rosso, Anna C.

GLO Fellow Veronica Grembi

Author Abstract: Using a new measure of the strength of gender stereotypes defined at the individual level and based on responses to a survey conducted with more than 4,500 Italian women in July 2020, we show that women with stronger stereotypes are more likely to state that they know a victim of violence but are not more likely to state that violence (physical or psychological) is widespread in their area of residence. They are also more likely to rank behaviours meant to control a victim’s interpersonal contacts and access to financial resources as more serious than physically and sexually violent behaviours and to justify violent acts using distressing, event-specific circumstances (e.g., a period of economic distress) rather than the deep-seated psychological issues of the attackers. Finally, when personal stereotyping is stronger, respondents are more likely to suggest that a hypothetical victim of violence either not react to or deal directly with the partner rather than look for formal help. Using different controls for the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on the respondents’ personal and economic lives does not affect our main findings.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Sexual Orientation and Earnings. A Meta-Analysis 2012-2020. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Nick Drydakis.

The meta-analysis provided in a new GLO Discussion Paper finds that gay men earned less than heterosexual men; lesbian women earned more than heterosexual women, while bisexual men earned less than heterosexual men.

Nick Drydakis

GLO Discussion Paper No. 862, 2021

Sexual Orientation and Earnings. A Meta-Analysis 2012-2020 Download PDF
by
Drydakis, Nick

GLO Fellow Nick Drydakis

Forthcoming: Journal of Population Economics.

Author Abstract: This meta-analysis utilizes 24 papers published between 2012-2020 that focus on earnings differences by sexual orientation. The papers cover the period between 1991 and 2018, and countries in Europe, North America and Australia. The meta-analysis indicates that gay men earned less than heterosexual men. Lesbian women earned more than heterosexual women, while bisexual men earned less than heterosexual men. Bisexual women earned less than heterosexual women. According to the meta-analysis, in data sets after 2010, gay men and bisexual men and women continue to experience earnings penalties, while lesbian women continue to experience earnings premiums. Τhe meta-regression estimates indicate relationships between study characteristics and the estimated earnings effects for sexual minorities. For instance, regions, sexual minority data set sizes, and earnings classifications influence the outcomes. The persistence of earnings penalties for gay men and bisexual men and women in the face of anti-discrimination policies represents a cause for concern and indicates the need for comprehensive legislation and workplace guidelines to guarantee that people receive fair pay and not experience any form of workplace inequality simply because of their sexual orientation.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Communication Barriers and Infant Health: Intergenerational Effects of Randomly Allocating Refugees Across Language Regions. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Johannes Kunz and Daniel Auer.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Switzerland that children born to mothers who were exogenously allocated to an environment that matched their linguistic heritage are on average healthier than those that were allocated to an unfamiliar language environment.

Johannes Kunz

GLO Discussion Paper No. 867, 2021

Communication Barriers and Infant Health: Intergenerational Effects of Randomly Allocating Refugees Across Language Regions Download PDF

by Auer, Daniel & Kunz, Johannes S.

GLO Fellow Johannes Kunz

Author Abstract: This paper investigates the intergenerational effect of communication barriers on child health at birth using a natural experiment in Switzerland. We leverage the fact that refugees arriving in Switzerland originate from places that have large shares of French (or Italian) speakers for historical reasons and upon arrival are by law randomly allocated across states that are dominated by different languages but subject to the same jurisdiction. Our findings based on administrative records of all refugee arrivals and birth events between 2010 and 2017 show that children born to mothers who were exogenously allocated to an environment that matched their linguistic heritage are on average 72 gram heavier (or 2.2%) than those that were allocated to an unfamiliar language environment. The differences are driven by growth rather than gestation and manifest in a 2.9 percentage point difference in low birth weight incidence. We find substantial dose-response relationships in terms of language exposure in both, the origin country and the destination region. Moreover, French (Italian) exposed refugees only benefit from French-(Italian-) speaking destinations, but not vice versa. Contrasting the language match with co-ethnic networks, we find that high quality networks are acting as a substitute rather than a complement.

Featured image: Ra-Dragon-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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The impact of University reopenings on COVID-19 cases in Scotland. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Hector Rufrancos, Mirko Moro & Eva Moore.

A new GLO Discussion Paper for Scottish universities finds a substantial and persistent increase in cases in areas containing halls and evidence of persistent spillovers.

Hector Rufrancos

GLO Discussion Paper No. 868, 2021

The impact of University reopenings on COVID-19 cases in Scotland Download PDF
by
Rufrancos, Héctor & Moro, Mirko & Moore, Eva

GLO Fellow Hector Rufrancos

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of University reopenings in Scotland in Autumn 2020 on COVID-19 cases in Scottish neighbourhoods. We geolocate all student halls in Scotland, and merge this data with neighbourhood-level case data. We employ a local differences-indi fferences strategy and tackle two research questions. First, we ask what was the impact of the start of semester on cases in the student neighbourhoods? Next, we turn our attention to the spillover of cases in the nearby communities to student neighbourhoods. University semester start dates in Scotland are staggered over the month of September, and we deal with this by focusing on each start cluster, as well as implementing the Callaway and Sant’Anna (2020) estimator. We find a substantial and persistent increase in cases in areas containing halls and evidence of persistent spillovers. These effects are linked to the group of Universities that started on 14th September, which include large Universities located in the major urban areas. The cases began to rise on 21st September, with 100 extra cases per 100,000 per day, and peaked a week later with 400 additional cases per 100,000 per day, after which they started declining, but persist until the Autumn tightening of coronavirus restrictions bit in November, two months after the restrictions were enacted. Our results invite a re-think of how close contact activities may safely resume.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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A Political Economy and Voicing Model of the Institutional Impact of Brain Drain, Human Capital, Inequality and Country Size. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Frederic Docquier & Maurice Schiff.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the brain drain, human capital, and inequality’s institutional impact in a model where a rent-seeking elite taxes residents and voicing affects the likelihood of regime change.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 866, 2021

A Political Economy and Voicing Model of the Institutional Impact of Brain Drain, Human Capital, Inequality and Country Size Download PDF

by Docquier, Frédéric & Schiff, Maurice

GLO Fellows Frederic Docquier & Maurice Schiff

Maurice Schiff

Author Abstract: Brain drain BD, human capital h, and inequality’s institutional impact is examined in a model where a rent-seeking elite taxes residents and voicing affects the likelihood of regime change. We find that BD and h’s impact on institutional quality (Q) are as follows: i) Q is a U-shaped function of BD, with maximum (minimum) at BD = 0 (0 ) BD1, and is maximized at BD = 0; vi) Q increases in a high (low) BD country under a host country’s immigration promotion (restriction); vii) a high BD country’s institutions improve (worsen) under a large (small) reduction in BD; viii) the latter is particularly relevant for small and micro states where BD and Q are likely to be greater than in large but otherwise similar countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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The Effects of COVID-19 on Employment, Labour Markets and Gender Equality in Central America. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Allan Webster, Sangeeta Khorana & Francesco Pastore.

A new GLO Discussion Paper based on data collected by the World Bank suggests that a significant proportion of surviving firms in Central America are vulnerable to permanent closure.

Francesco Pastore

GLO Discussion Paper No. 865, 2021

The Effects of COVID-19 on Employment, Labour Markets and Gender Equality in Central America Download PDF
by
Webster, Allan & Khorana, Sangeeta & Pastore, Francesco

GLO Fellows Allan Webster, Sangeeta Khorana & Francesco Pastore

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: This study considers the economic impact of Covid-19 on enterprises in four Central American countries – El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. At the time of the analysis neither the pandemic nor its economic consequences had fully run their course. It is not, therefore, a definitive analysis but it is important to try to draw important lessons as soon as possible. The main focus of the study was the initial impact on labour markets. The analysis was based on World Bank enterprise surveys§ undertaken before the outbreak of Covid-19 and follow-up surveys on the effects of the pandemic, also undertaken by the World Bank. These were combined with data on government containment measures and on morbidity and mortality rates.

The use of enterprise data to analyse labour market issues has some limitations but also many strengths. The data is useful for analysing the consequences for gender equality in employment. Since the demand for labour is a derived demand firm level data provides a clear link to labour market effects. The pandemic has caused a significant loss in sales for many firms, This creates a loss of liquidity which, in turn, has caused some firms to reduce employment, working hours and wages. Government containment measures necessary to save lives such as temporary workplace closures have added to the burden for both firms and employees.

The study starts by using the surveys to identify the important stylised facts. Although some issues are already well documented anecdotally through media reports this provides a more evidence based approach. It also helps identify several issues, such as the impact on gender equality which have received less journalistic attention. The study is further supported by a regression analysis (OLS and SURE) of several key outcomes (changes in sales, employment, the share of females in employment and firm expectations of survival). A limitation of such analysis with any enterprise level is heterogeneity and, in consequence, a risk of sample selection bias. To provide robustness checks we use a matching approach.

The results suggest that a significant proportion of surviving firms are vulnerable to permanent closure. The ability of firms to retain labour depends on sales which are affected by both the pandemic itself and the government containment measures. Only a small proportion of firms have received government support and there is evidence that it could help both firm survival and the retention of labour. There is some doubt whether the four countries have the institutional capacity to provide effective support. If such doubts prove well founded then support may need to be externally driven.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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An Ex-Ante Assessment on Poverty and Cash Transfer Benefits in Viet Nam under the Covid-19 Pandemic. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Cuong Nguyen and Long Thanh Giang & Aiko Kikkawa.

A new GLO Discussion Paper on Vietnam suggests that COVID-19 leads to a substantial reduction in household’s per-capita income and to additional 1.7 million poor people.

Cuong Nguyen

GLO Discussion Paper No. 864, 2021

An Ex-Ante Assessment on Poverty and Cash Transfer Benefits in Viet Nam under the Covid-19 Pandemic Download PDF
by
Giang, Long Thanh & Kikkawa, Aiko & Nguyen, Cuong Viet

GLO Fellow Cuong Nguyen

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: Using household data from the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) and the sector-specific growth and remittance inflow projections by Asian Development Bank (ADB), this study first estimated the COVID-19 pandemic on income and poverty status of the Vietnamese households, and then simulated the impact of cash transfer programs by the government of Vietnam on the income and poverty status of households. Our simulations suggest that COVID-19 leads to substantial reduction in household’s per-capita income, and results in additional 1.7 million poor people. The cash transfers would be pro-poor and helps bring about 1.2 million people out of poverty. The transfers would be particularly pro-poor for ethnic minority and rural persons and those working in severely affected economic sectors. Based on the findings, we discussed various policies to implement appropriate measures to help households cope with adverse economic impact of COVID-19.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Even more discouraged? The NEET generation at the age of COVID-19. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Carmen Aina, Irene Brunetti, Chiara Mussida and Sergio Scicchitano.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the probability of being NEET significantly increased during the pandemic in Italy.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 863, 2021

Even more discouraged? The NEET generation at the age of COVID-19 Download PDF
by
Aina, Carmen & Brunetti, Irene & Mussida, Chiara & Scicchitano, Sergio

GLO Fellows Carmen Aina, Chiara Mussida and Sergio Scicchitano

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Sergio Scicchitano

Author Abstract: This paper evaluates if and to what extend the risk of becoming Not in Employment, Education or Training (NEET) has worsened during the Covid-19 pandemic in Italy. The analysis is based on a unique dataset from the merging of two sample surveys, the Italian Labor Force Survey and the Institutional Quality Index dataset. We find that the probability of being NEET significantly increased during the pandemic, but heterogeneously between age cohorts and geographical areas. The most affected categories have been young people (aged 25-34) and those living in North-West regions. Females are mostly affected compared to males, especially those experiencing motherhood and living in a Southern province. Investment in education reduces the NEET status, mainly for age-group 25-34 in the South. Participation in the civil society significantly reduces the probability to being NEET. Finally, active policies conducted at regional level are a further educational investment that protect from becoming NEET, although their effectiveness is not significant in the Southern regions. We provide novel evidence to inform policymakers and help building evidence-based policies, tailored on local needs.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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More goals, fewer babies? On national teams’ performance and birth rates. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Luca Fumarco & Francesco Principe.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that an increase in national teams’ performance in international cups is associated with a drop in birth rates nine months after the event.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 860, 2021

More goals, fewer babies? On national teams’ performance and birth rates Download PDF
by
Fumarco, Luca & Principe, Francesco

GLO Fellow Luca Fumarco

Luca Fumarco

Author Abstract: Does national team performance boost birth rates? We compiled a unique dataset combining country-level monthly birth rates for 50 European countries, along 56 years, with measures of national teams’ performance in 27 international football events. We find that an increase in national teams’ performance in international cups is associated with a drop in birth rates nine months after the event. We hypothesize that these results might be explained by individuals’ time allocation choices.

Featured image: daniel-norin-on-unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Religiosity, Smoking and Other Addictive Behaviors. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Monica Roman, Klaus F. Zimmermann & Aurelian-Petruș Plopeanu.

Using data for young Romanians, a new GLO Discussion Paper finds that it is external religiosity that interacts with weaker addictive behaviors like smoking, drinking and using drugs.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 859, 2021

Religiosity, Smoking and Other Addictive BehaviorsDownload PDF
by
Roman, Monica & Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Plopeanu, Aurelian-Petruș

Author Abstract: While under communism, identity-providing religion was suppressed, religiosity is strong today even among the youth in post-communist countries. This provides an appropriate background to investigate how external and internal religiosity relates to addictive behaviors like smoking, drinking and drugs among the young. This study shows that not religion as such or internal religiosity, but largely observable (external) religiosity prevents them from wallowing those vices.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Does vocational education pay better, or worse, than academic education? A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Jie Chen and GLO Fellow Francesco Pastore.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for China that vocational upper secondary graduates face a wage penalty compared to academic upper secondary graduates.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 858, 2021

Does vocational education pay better, or worse, than academic education? Download PDF
by
Chen, Jie & Pastore, Francesco

GLO Affiliate Jie Chen and GLO Fellow Francesco Pastore

Author Abstract: In this paper, we use the Chinese General Social Survey data to analyse the returns to upper secondary vocational education in China. To address possible endogeneity of vocational training due to omitted heterogeneity, we construct a novel instrumental variable using the proportion of tertiary education graduates relative to the entire population by year. Our main finding is that, although returns to vocational upper secondary education appear higher than returns to academic upper secondary education according to the Mincerian equation, the results from the instrumental variable method tell the opposite story: vocational upper secondary graduates face a wage penalty compared to academic upper secondary graduates. The wage penalty is confirmed by an alternative and more recent IV method – the Lewbel method (Lewbel, 2012). Our findings highlight the importance of properly accounting for endogeneity when estimating the returns to vocational education.

Photo-by-J-Zamora-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Confidence in public institutions is critical in containing the COVID-19 pandemic. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Anna Adamecz-Volgyi & Ágnes Szabó-Morvai.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that confidence in public institutions is one of the most important predictors of deaths attributed to COVID-19.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 861, 2021

Confidence in public institutions is critical in containing the COVID-19 pandemic Download PDF
by
Adamecz-Völgyi, Anna & Szabó-Morvai, Ágnes

GLO Fellow Anna Adamecz-Volgyi

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Author Abstract: This paper investigates the relative importance of confidence in public institutions to explain cross-country differences in the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. We extend the related literature by employing regression and machine learning methods to identify the most critical predictors of deaths attributed to the pandemic. We find that a one standard deviation increase (e.g., the actual difference between the US and Finland) in confidence is associated with 350.9 fewer predicted deaths per million inhabitants. Confidence in public institutions is one of the most important predictors of deaths attributed to COVID-19, compared to country-level measures of individual health risks, the health system, demographics, economic and political development, and social capital. Our results suggest that effective policy implementation requires citizens to cooperate with their governments, and willingness to cooperate relies on confidence in public institutions.

Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Immigration and the UK economy after Brexit: A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Jonathan Portes.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews migration out of the UK after Brexit and Covid-19, and discusses possible future flows and impacts.

Jonathan Portes

GLO Discussion Paper No. 854, 2021

Immigration and the UK economy after Brexit Download PDF
by
Portes, Jonathan

GLO Fellow Jonathan Portes

Author Abstract: I review trends in migration to the UK since the Brexit referendum, examining first the sharp fall in net migration from the EU that resulted, and then the recent more dramatic exodus of foreign-born residents during the covid-19 pandemic. I describe the new post-Brexit system, and review studies which attempt to estimate both the impact on future migration flows and on GDP and GDP per capita. Finally, I discuss the wider economic impact of the new system and some of the policy implications.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Loss aversion in taste-based employee discrimination: Evidence from a choice experiment. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Stijn Baert and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper indicates that introducing a hypothetical wage penalty for discriminatory choice behavior lowers discrimination and that higher penalties have a greater effect.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 856, 2021

Loss aversion in taste-based employee discrimination: Evidence from a choice experiment Download PDF
by
Lippens, Louis & Baert, Stijn & Derous, Eva

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Using a choice experiment, we test whether taste-based employee discrimination against ethnic minorities is susceptible to loss aversion. In line with empirical evidence from previous research, our results indicate that introducing a hypothetical wage penalty for discriminatory choice behaviour lowers discrimination and that higher penalties have a greater effect. Most notably, we find that the propensity to discriminate is significantly lower when this penalty is loss-framed rather than gain-framed. From a policy perspective, it could therefore be more effective to financially penalise taste-based discriminators than to incentivise them not to discriminate.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Wage Theft, Economic Conditions, and Market Power: The Case of H-1B Workers. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Jed DeVaro and GLO Fellow Peter Norlander.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews employers’ violations of the wage contracts of workers on H-1B temporary work visas to the US; higher labor market power is associated with fewer violations, higher unemployment rates and subcontractor firms are associated with more.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 855, 2021

Wage Theft, Economic Conditions, and Market Power: The Case of H-1B Workers Download PDF
by
DeVaro, Jed & Norlander, Peter

GLO Fellow Peter Norlander

Author Abstract: This study explores what determines employers’ violations of the wage contracts of workers on H-1B temporary work visas, which occur when firms pay those workers below the promised prevailing or “market” wage. A theoretical framework is proposed that predicts more violations during economic downturns, fewer violations when firms have more labor-market power, and more violations by subcontractor firms. Empirical analysis is based on a firm-level matched dataset of wage and hour violations and the firms that sponsor H-1Bs. Higher labor market power, measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, is associated with fewer violations. Higher unemployment rates and subcontractor firms are associated with more violations. The effects of the unemployment rate and labor market power are amplified in subcontractor firms.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Willingness to pay for private and public improvements of vulnerable road users’ safety. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Linda Andersson Järnberg and Daniela Andrén & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that there is no significant difference between valuations of a private good and various versions of a public good as long as the good itself is the same.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 853, 2021

Willingness to pay for private and public improvements of vulnerable road users’ safety Download PDF
by
Andersson Järnberg, Linda & Andrén, Daniela & Hultkrantz, Lars & Rutström, E. Elisabet & Vimefall, Elin

GLO Fellows Linda Andersson Järnberg and Daniela Andrén

Author Abstract: A frequent finding in the empirical literature on cost-benefit analysis of traffic safety measures is that valuations of public goods are lower than valuations of private goods, contrary to theory predictions. This study elicits the willingness to pay for publicly and privately provided safety improvement benefiting cyclists and pedestrians, a relatively neglected group in this literature. Our results suggest that there is no significant difference between valuations of a private good and three versions of a public good as long as the good itself is the same, in our case a mobile phone app. The public good versions differ in attributes such as mandatory or voluntary use and private or public provision institutions. . This finding is consistent with the simultaneous presence of both financial altruism and safety altruism, or neither. Public institutions are preferred to private ones in the provision of the public goods, and voluntary participation is preferred to mandated regulation. We also find evidence that attitudes that favor using taxes to fund traffic safety projects, and public responsibility for traffic safety are associated with a higher willingness to pay.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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Can You Teach an Old Dog New Tricks? New Evidence on the Impact of Tenure on Productivity. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow François Rycx & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that tenure exhibits an inverted-U-shaped relationship with respect to productivity, but its impact differs widely across workforce and firm dimensions.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 852, 2021

Can You Teach an Old Dog New Tricks? New Evidence on the Impact of Tenure on Productivity Download PDF
by
Gagliardi, Nicola & Grinza, Elena & Rycx, François

GLO Fellow François Rycx

Author Abstract: In this paper, we explore the impact of workers’ tenure on firm productivity, using rich longitudinal matched employer-employee data on private Belgian firms. We estimate a production function augmented with a firm-level measure of tenure. We deal with endogeneity, which arises from unobserved firm heterogeneity and reverse causality, by applying a modified version of Ackerberg et al.’s (2015) control function method, which explicitly removes firm fixed effects. Consistently with recent theoretical predictions, we find that tenure exhibits an inverted-U-shaped relationship with respect to productivity. The existence of decreasing marginal returns to tenure is corroborated in our analysis on the tenure composition of the workforce. We also find that the impact of tenure differs widely across workforce and firm dimensions. Tenure is particularly beneficial for productivity in contexts characterized by a certain degree of routineness and lower job complexity. Along the same lines, our findings indicate that tenure exerts stronger (positive) impacts in industrial and high capital-intensive firms, as well as in firms less reliant on knowledge- and ICT-intensive processes.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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A Simple Nudge Increases Socioeconomic Diversity in Undergraduate Economics. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Todd Pugatch and Elizabeth Schroeder.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that a light-touch intervention can increase socioeconomic and racial diversity in undergraduate economics.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Todd Pugatch

GLO Discussion Paper No. 851, 2021

A Simple Nudge Increases Socioeconomic Diversity in Undergraduate Economics Download PDF
by
Pugatch, Todd & Schroeder, Elizabeth

GLO Fellow Todd Pugatch

Author Abstract: We assess whether a light-touch intervention can increase socioeconomic and racial diversity in undergraduate Economics. We randomly assigned over 2,200 students a message with basic information about the Economics major; the basic message combined with an emphasis on the rewarding careers or financial returns associated with the major; or no message. Messages increased the proportion of first generation and underrepresented minority (URM) students majoring in Economics by five percentage points. This effect size was sufficient to reverse the gap in Economics majors between first generation/URM students and students not in these groups. Effect sizes were larger and more precise for better-performing students and first generation students. Extrapolating to the full sample, the treatment would double the proportion of first generation and underrepresented minority students majoring in Economics.

Featured image: Photo-by-Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

Macroeconomic Contractions during Impressionable Years and Entrepreneurship in Later Adulthood. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Cahit Guven and Carol Graham & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that bad economic conditions when young can significantly predict higher entrepreneurship in later life.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 850, 2021

Macroeconomic Contractions during Impressionable Years and Entrepreneurship in Later Adulthood Download PDF
by
Sotirakopoulos, Panagiotis & Guven, Cahit & Ulker, Aydogan & Graham, Carol

GLO Fellows Cahit Guven and Carol Graham

Author Abstract: We argue that past events experienced during the critical ages of 18-25 can influence an individual’s future entrepreneurship based on the “impressionable years hypothesis”. Accordingly, we empirically investigate the relationship between bad economic conditions during youth and later-life entrepreneurship using Gallup from 2009 to 2014. The identification is achieved through variations across 77 countries and age cohorts born between 1954 and 1989. Our findings indicate that bad economic conditions when young can significantly predict higher entrepreneurship in later life. For example, experiencing at least one economic contraction during youth increases future self-employment/business ownership propensities by about 6/10% at the outcome means. Graduating from college and entering the job market in a bad economy cannot explain our results. Findings are robust to numerous methods of measuring economic contractions and controlling for behavioural measures as well as economic shocks experienced before and after the impressionable years.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The Significance of Herzberg and Taylor for the Gig Economy of China: Evaluating Gigger Incentives for Meituan and Ele.me. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Boidurjo Rick Mukhopadhyay & Chris R. Chatwin.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies online food ordering which tops online orders and creates millions of food delivery rider jobs/gigs in mainland China.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

B. Mukhopadhyay

GLO Discussion Paper No. 849, 2021

The Significance of Herzberg and Taylor for the Gig Economy of China: Evaluating Gigger Incentives for Meituan and Ele.meDownload PDF
by
Mukhopadhyay, Boidurjo Rick & Chatwin, Chris R.

GLO Fellow Boidurjo Rick Mukhopadhyay

Author Abstract: This article investigates the motivation of contingent workers in the gig economy of China, particularly focusing on the two Mobile Food Delivery Aggregators (MFDA) – Meituan and Ele.me that controls over 80% of the food delivery market in China. The convenience of one ‘super-app’ on phone, offered by each of these companies, allows users to order a diversified range of products and services starting from food, clothing to travel booking and ride-hailing. Online food ordering, however, tops the chart of online orders and this creates millions of food delivery rider jobs/gigs in mainland China. This paper draws key insights from the employee motivation theories by Herzberg and Taylor which underpins the findings and thematic discussion of this qualitative paper. While it is important to recognise that the usage growth of these MFDAs and consequently new gig creation is exponentially growing, the implications of this research would inform these online platform-based companies how to better design motivational factors or incentives to boost their employee satisfaction, engagement and levels of commitments in the colossal Gig economy of mainland China.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The COVID-19 Pandemic and the Transformation of Health Policy: A Syndemic Perspective. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Xi Chen & Annie Fan.

After the pandemic is before the next pandemic: A new GLO Discussion Paper navigates through a long-awaited health policy transformation in areas that help to better prepare for the next pandemic.

Xi Chen

GLO Discussion Paper No. 848, 2021

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the Transformation of Health Policy: A Syndemic PerspectiveDownload PDF
by
Chen, Xi & Fan, Annie

GLO Fellow Xi Chen

Author Abstract: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is bringing about once-in-a-century changes to human society. Three key properties escalate the COVID-19 pandemic into a syndemic. To address this triple crisis, we discuss the importance of integrating early, targeted and coordinated public health measures with more equitable social policy, and with health care policy that realigns incentives of the major players in the health care market. Drawing on evidence from past and present epidemics as well as comparing variations in response to the current health emergency between China, the U.S. and beyond, we navigate long-awaited health policy transformation in areas that help us better prepare for the next pandemic.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

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World War II, the Baby Boom and Employment: County Level Evidence: A new GLO Discussion Paper of GLO Fellow Abel Brodeur & GLO Affiliate Lamis Kattan.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that while most counties in the U.S. experienced a Baby Boom following the war, the increase in fertility was lower in high-casualty rate counties than in low-casualty rate counties which were positively related to 1950s female employment and household income.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Abel Brodeur

GLO Discussion Paper No. 847, 2021

847 World War II, the Baby Boom and Employment: County Level EvidenceDownload PDF
by
Brodeur, Abel & Kattan, Lamis

GLO Fellow Abel Brodeur & GLO Affiliate Lamis Kattan

Author Abstract: This paper examines the impact of male casualties due to World War II on fertility and female employment in the United States. We rely on the number of casualties at the county-level and use a difference-in-differences strategy. While most counties in the U.S. experienced a Baby Boom following the war, we find that the increase in fertility was lower in high-casualty rate counties than in low-casualty rate counties. Analyzing the channels through which male casualties could have decreased fertility, we provide evidence that county male casualties are positively related to 1950s female employment and household income.

Featured image: Stijn-Swinnen-on-unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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COVID-19, Working from Home and the Potential Reverse Brain Drain. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Ruxanda Berlinschi and Jan Fidrmuc and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper discusses reverse brain drain of white-collar migrant workers returning to live in their countries of origin while continuing to work for employers in their countries of destination as a consequence of working-from home experiences during the Covid-19 period.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Jan Fidrmuc

GLO Discussion Paper No. 845, 2021

COVID-19, Working from Home and the Potential Reverse Brain Drain Download PDF
by
Bakalova, Irina & Berlinschi, Ruxanda & Fidrmuc, Jan & Dzyuba, Yuri

GLO Fellows Ruxanda Berlinschi and Jan Fidrmuc


Author Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a substantial increase in the prevalence of working from home among white-collar occupations. This can have important implications for the future of the workplace and quality of life. We discuss an additional implication, which we label reverse brain drain: the possibility that white-collar migrant workers return to live in their countries of origin while continuing to work for employers in their countries of destination. We estimate the potential size of this reverse flow using data from the European Labor Force Survey. Our estimates suggest that the UK, France, Switzerland and Germany each have around half a million skilled migrants who could perform their jobs from their home countries. Most of them originate from the other EU member states: both old and new. We discuss the potential economic, social and political implications of such reverse brain drain.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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On Immigration and Native Entrepreneurship. A new GLO Discussion Paper of GLO Fellow Harriet Duleep & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper presents a novel theory that immigrants facilitate innovation and entrepreneurship by being willing and able to invest in new skills.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Harriet Duleep

GLO Discussion Paper No. 846, 2021

On Immigration and Native EntrepreneurshipDownload PDF
by
Duleep, Harriet & Jaeger, David A. & McHenry, Peter

GLO Fellow Harriet Orcutt Duleep

Author Abstract: We present a novel theory that immigrants facilitate innovation and entrepreneurship by being willing and able to invest in new skills. Immigrants whose human capital is not immediately transferable to the host country face lower opportunity costs of investing in new skills or methods and will be more exible in their human capital investments than observationally equivalent natives. Areas with large numbers of immigrants may therefore lead to more entrepreneurship and innovation, even among natives. We provide empirical evidence from the United States that is consistent with the theory’s predictions.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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corona

Socioeconomic Conditions in Childhood and Mental Health Later in Life. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Viola Angelini & Laura Viluma and Jochen Mierau.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews the literature attempting to identify causal effects before discussing the potential mechanisms at play.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Viola Angelini

GLO Discussion Paper No. 844, 2021

Socioeconomic Conditions in Childhood and Mental Health Later in Life Download PDF
by
Angelini, Viola & Mierau, Jochen O. & Viluma, Laura

GLO Fellows Viola Angelini and Laura Viluma

Author Abstract: This chapter provides a narrative review of the literature relating socioeconomic circumstances early in life to mental health and well-being later in life. It starts by highlighting the various contributions focusing on associations, then moves on to the literature attempting to identify causal effects before discussing the potential mechanisms at play. The chapter closes with a view toward research questions that may inform a future research agenda and highlights some anchors for policy.

Featured image: Photo-by-Jude-Beck-on-unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Impacts of COVID-19 on the Self-employed. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Charlene Marie Kalenkoski & GLO Fellow Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds differential effects by gender that favor men, by marital status and gender that favor married men over married women, and by gender, marital, and parental status that favor married fathers over married mothers.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Sabrina Pabilonia

GLO Discussion Paper No. 843, 2021

Impacts of COVID-19 on the Self-employed Download PDF
by
Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie & Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

GLO Fellow Sabrina Pabilonia

Author Abstract: This study estimates random effects and difference-in-difference-in-differences models to examine the initial impacts of COVID-19 on the employment and hours of unincorporated selfemployed workers using monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey. For these workers, effects were visible in March as voluntary social distancing began, largest in April as complete shutdowns occurred, and slightly smaller in May as some restrictions were eased. We find differential effects by gender that favor men, by marital status and gender that favor married men over married women, and by gender, marital, and parental status that favor married fathers over married mothers. The evidence suggests that self-employed married mothers were forced out of the labor force to care for children as prescribed by gender norms and the division and specialization of labor within households. Remote work and working in an essential industry mitigated some of the negative effects on employment and hours.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Happiness and Migration. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Martijn Hendriks and Martijn J. Burger.

A new GLO Discussion Paper documents the crucial role happiness plays in migration decisions.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 842, 2021

Happiness and Migration Download PDF
by
Hendriks, Martijn & Burger, Martijn J.

GLO Fellow Martijn Hendriks

Author Abstract: A subjective well-being angle has emerged as an important new frontier to advance the understanding of the causes and consequences of migration. The purpose of this chapter is to organize and take stock of this emerging literature on the bi-directional relationship between migration and happiness by reviewing the available literature from a global perspective. The literature review covers both international migration and internal migration and considers the outcomes of various stakeholders (migrants, hosting communities, and family members left behind). The literature documents ample evidence that happiness plays an important role in migration decisions, with relatively unhappy people moving to happier places, even after accounting for standard predictors of migration. In some contexts, internal migrants experience a pre-migration happiness dip. Most international migrants gain happiness from migration, hosting populations tend to experience a mixed but small impact, and family members staying behind generally experience a positive impact on evaluative well-being but not emotional well-being. However, the outcomes are strongly context-dependent and important differences exist between individuals. The impact of migration is much smaller for internal migrants. Overall, the current evidence suggests that migration contributes to a happier world because of the generally positive effects on migrants and the marginal effects on hosting communities.

Featured image: Photo-by-Elijah-Hail-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Are temporary jobs stepping stones or dead ends? A meta-analytical review of the literature by GLO Fellows Filomena Maggino and Matteo Picchio.

A new GLO Discussion Paper suggests that the stepping stone effect is more likely to emerge when self-selectivity issues are dealt with.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Matteo Picchio

GLO Discussion Paper No. 841, 2021

Are temporary jobs stepping stones or dead ends? A meta-analytical review of the literature Download PDF
by
Filomena, Mattia & Picchio, Matteo

GLO Fellows Filomena Maggino and Matteo Picchio

Author Abstract: We present a meta-analysis on the debate about the “stepping stone vs. dead end” hypothesis related to the causal effect of temporary jobs on future labour market performances. We select academic papers published on international peer-reviewed journals from 1990 until 2021. Among 78 observations from 64 articles, 32% support the hypothesis according to which temporary contracts are a port of entry into stable employment positions, 23% report ambiguous or mixed findings, and the remaining 45% provide evidence in favour of the dead end hypothesis. The results from meta-regressions suggest that the stepping stone effect is more likely to emerge when self-selectivity issues are dealt with, especially when using the timing-of-events approach. The studies focusing on temporary work agency jobs and casual/seasonal jobs detect more easily results in favour of the dead end hypothesis. Finally, in more recent years and when the unemployment rate is larger, the dead end hypothesis is more likely to prevail.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Germany’s Labour Market in Coronavirus Distress – New Challenges to Safeguarding Employment. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Patrick Nüß and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that short-time work accounts for almost all of the working-time reduction in Germany during the pandemic.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Patrick Nüß

GLO Discussion Paper No. 840, 2021

Germany’s Labour Market in Coronavirus Distress – New Challenges to Safeguarding Employment Download PDF
by
Herzog-Stein, Alexander & Nüß, Patrick & Peede, Lennert & Stein, Ulrike

GLO Affiliate Patrick Nüß

Author Abstract: We analyse measures of internal flexibility taken to safeguard employment during the Coronavirus Crisis in comparison to the Great Recession. Cyclical working-time reductions are again a major factor in safeguarding employment. Whereas during the Great Recession all working-time instruments contributed to the reduction in working time, short-time work (STW) now accounts for almost all of the working-time reduction. STW was more rapidly extended, more generous, and for the first time a stronger focus was put on securing household income on a broad basis. Still, the current crisis is more severe and affects additional sectors of the economy where low-wage earners are affected more frequently by STW and suffered on average relatively greater earnings losses. A hypothetical average short-time worker had a relative income loss in April 2020 that was more than twice as large as that in May 2009. Furthermore, marginal employment is affected strongly but not protected by STW.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

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GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Do International Study Programmes Pay off for Local Students? A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Zhiling Wang and Francesco Pastore and colleagues.

The new GLO Discussion Paper finds that Dutch graduates from international programs start their career with higher wages and the initial wage advantages persist in the long-run.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 839, 2021

Do International Study Programmes Pay off for Local Students?Download PDF
by
Wang, Zhiling & Pastore, Francesco & Karreman, Bas & van Oort, Frank

GLO Fellows Zhiling Wang and Francesco Pastore

Author Abstract: International study programmes are increasing in number worldwide, but little is known about the impact on local students’ job prospects, especially in a non-English speaking countries. Using rich administrative data from Statistics Netherlands, we analyse labour market outcomes of native graduates in master programmes of Dutch universities between 2006 to 2014 within 5 years after graduation. A coarsened exact matching analysis within cohort-university-detailed field of study group addresses the self-selection issue by generating a matched sample of students with similar characteristics. We find that graduates from international programmmes obtain a wage premium of 2.3% starting from the 1st year after graduation, ceteris paribus. The wage premium keeps increasing by about 1% every year. We investigate the mechanisms through which the wage premium operates. The wage premia can neither be explained by wage increase via cross-firm mobility, nor by faster upward mobility within a firm. Instead, evidence point towards the differential characteristics of the first job upon graduation. Graduates from international programmes are much more likely to choose large firms that have a higher share of foreign-born employees and have business of trade for the first job. They get a head start in wage level and the initial wage advantages persist in the long-run.

Featured image: Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Employment Contracts and Stress: Experimental Evidence. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Keith Bender & colleagues.

The new GLO Discussion Paper reveals the detrimental effects performance-related pay may have on health.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Keith Bender

GLO Discussion Paper No. 838, 2021

Employment Contracts and Stress: Experimental EvidenceDownload PDF
by
Allan, Julia L. & Andelic, Nicole & Bender, Keith A. & Powell, Daniel & Stoffel, Sandro & Theodossiou, Ioannis

GLO Fellow Keith Bender

See also GLO Virtual Seminar Presentation

Author Abstract: This study examines the efficiency and distributional effects of selected labor market institutions in Albania, a rather underresearched country. An initial overview of the postcommunist developments articulates why Albania has the poorest labor market performance among other South East European countries. Using a set of mixed qualitative and descriptive quantitative methods we find evidence of inefficient segmental effects and a predatory structure of labor market institutions which noticeably diverge from the efficient institutions’ point of reference. The institutional/welfare regime at the cross-national level points out at a relationship between the labor market institutional framework and labor market performance, as measured by unemployment. At the country level, a disproportional relationship between the “de jure” labor market regulation and unemployment is identified, which is also moderated by the interaction between labor market and economic institution

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Efficiency and Distributional Effects of the Two-Tracked Labor Market Institutions in Albania. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Elvisa Drishti & colleagues.

The new GLO Discussion Paper reveals the weaknesses of Albanian labor market institutions.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 837, 2021

Efficiency and Distributional Effects of the Two-Tracked Labor Market Institutions in AlbaniaDownload PDF
by
Drishti, Elvisa & Kalaj, Ermira Hoxha & Kopliku, Bresena Dema

GLO Affiliate Elvisa Drishti

Author Abstract: This study examines the efficiency and distributional effects of selected labor market institutions in Albania, a rather underresearched country. An initial overview of the postcommunist developments articulates why Albania has the poorest labor market performance among other South East European countries. Using a set of mixed qualitative and descriptive quantitative methods we find evidence of inefficient segmental effects and a predatory structure of labor market institutions which noticeably diverge from the efficient institutions’ point of reference. The institutional/welfare regime at the cross-national level points out at a relationship between the labor market institutional framework and labor market performance, as measured by unemployment. At the country level, a disproportional relationship between the “de jure” labor market regulation and unemployment is identified, which is also moderated by the interaction between labor market and economic institution

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Entry Regulation and Competition: Evidence from Retail and Labor Markets of Pharmacists. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Davud Rostam-Afschar and Maximiliane Unsorg.

The new GLO Discussion Paper shows that deregulation creates jobs.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 836, 2021

Entry Regulation and Competition: Evidence from Retail and Labor Markets of PharmacistsDownload PDF
by
Rostam-Afschar, Davud & Unsorg, Maximiliane

GLO Fellow Davud Rostam-Afschar

Author Abstract: We examine a deregulation of German pharmacists to assess its effects on retail and labor markets. From 2004 onward, the reform allowed pharmacists to expand their single-store firms and to open or acquire up to three affiliated stores. This partial deregulation of multi-store prohibition reduced the cost of firm expansion substantially and provides the basis for our analysis. We develop a theoretical model that suggests that the general limitation of the total store number per firm to four is excessively restrictive. Firms with high managerial efficiency will open more stores per firm and have higher labor demand. Our empirical analysis uses very rich information from the administrative panel data on the universe of pharmacies from 2002 to 2009 and their affiliated stores matched with survey data, which provide additional information on the characteristics of expanding firms before and after the reform. We find a sharp immediate increase in entry rates, which continues to be more than five-fold of its pre-reform level after five years for expanding firms. Expanding firms can double revenues but not profits after three years. We show that the increase of the number of employees by 50% after five years and the higher overall employment in the local markets, which increased by 40%, can be attributed to the deregulation.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Effects of Mandatory Military Service on Wages and Other Socioeconomic Outcomes by GLO Fellow Patrick Puhani & Margret K. Sterrenberg.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds almost no statistically significant effects of a 6 to 9 month career interruption for young German men, with the exception of hourly wages.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Patrick Puhani

GLO Discussion Paper No. 835, 2021

Effects of Mandatory Military Service on Wages and Other Socioeconomic Outcomes Download PDF
by
Puhani, Patrick A. & Sterrenberg, Margret K.

GLO Fellow Patrick Puhani

Author Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the effects of mandatory military service by exploiting the post-cold war decrease in the need for soldiers causing a substantial number of potential conscripts not to be drafted into the German military. Specifically, using previously unavailable information on degree of fitness in the military’s medical exam as a control variable, we test for the effects of mandatory military service on wages; employment; marriage/partnership status; and satisfaction with work, financial situation, health, family life, friends, and life in general. We find almost no statistically significant effects of this 6 to 9 month career interruption for young German men, with the exception of hourly wage, which shows a negative point estimate of -15 percent with a large confidence interval of between -30 and -0.2 percent. This interval estimate is consistent with previous findings for the United States, Denmark, and the Netherlands.

Featured image: Stijn-Swinnen-on-unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Assessing gender gaps in employment and earnings in Africa: The case of Eswatini. A new GLO Discussion Paper of GLO Fellow Zuzana Brixiová Schwidrowskia and colleagues.

The findings in a new GLO Discussion Paper suggest that policies supporting female higher education and rural-urban mobility could reduce persistent inequalities in Eswatini’s labor market outcomes

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 834, 2021

Assessing gender gaps in employment and earnings in Africa: the case of Eswatini Download PDF
by
Brixiová Schwidrowski, Zuzana & Imai, Susumu & Kangoye, Thierry & Yameogo, Nadege Desiree

GLO Fellow Zuzana Brixiová Schwidrowskia

Author Abstract: Persistent gender gaps characterize labor markets in many African countries. Utilizing Eswatini’s first three labor market surveys (conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2013), this paper provides first systematic evidence on the country’s gender gaps in employment and earnings. We find that women have notably lower employment rates and earnings than men, even though the global financial crisis had a less negative impact on women than it had on men. Both unadjusted and unexplained gender earnings gaps are higher in self-employment than in wage employment. Tertiary education and urban location account for a large part of the gender earnings gap and mitigate high female propensity to self-employment. Our findings suggest that policies supporting female higher education and rural-urban mobility could reduce persistent inequalities in Eswatini’s labor market outcomes as well as in other middle-income countries in southern Africa.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Technology, risk and social policy. An empirical investigation. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Dario Guarascio & Stefano Sacchi.

A new GLO Discussion Paper confirms a strong relationship between exposure to technological risk and support for social safety nets among men but not for women.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 833, 2021

Technology, risk and social policy. An empirical investigation Download PDF
by
Guarascio, Dario & Sacchi, Stefano

GLO Fellow Dario Guarascio

Author Abstract: This paper investigates the role of exposure to technological risk in shaping social policy preferences, specifically on support for universal basic income and means-tested generalised minimum income. Evidence is provided for Italy, to exploit the availability of high-quality data, allowing measures of two dimensions of technological risk. Objective risk hinges upon the degree of substitutability of one’s occupation by machines, while subjective risk concerns a worker’s perception of their substitutability. We posit that exposure to technological risk induces individuals to ask for protection, and thus increases support for social policy. We test two hypotheses: first, that exposure to objective risk of replacement by machines is correlated with support for both safety nets; second, that such effect is increased by high perception of risk. On the whole, results confirm a strong relationship between exposure to technological risk and support for social safety nets, once objective risk is disentangled from subjective perceptions. However, we find that such relationship only holds for men, while it cannot be confirmed for women.

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