Category Archives: Discussion Paper

Conscription and Military Service: Do They Result in Future Violent and Non-Violent Incarcerations and Recidivism? A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Xintong Wang and Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

A new GLO Discussion Paper examines the effect of USA military service in Vietnam on incarceration outcomes, with effects among white volunteers and veterans in certain birth cohorts.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

GLO Discussion Paper No. 751, 2021

Conscription and Military Service: Do They Result in Future Violent and Non-Violent Incarcerations and Recidivism? Download PDF
by
Wang, Xintong & Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso

GLO Fellows Xintong Wang & Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

Author Abstract: Employing nonparametric bounds, we examine the effect of military service on incarceration outcomes using the Vietnam draft lotteries as a possibly invalid instrumental variable for military service. The draft is allowed to have a direct effect on the outcomes independently of military service, disposing of the exclusion restriction. We find: (i) suggestive but not strong statistical evidence that the direct effect of the draft increases the incarceration rate for violent offenses for a particular cohort of draft avoiders, and (ii) military service increases the incarceration rate for violent and nonviolent crimes of white volunteers and veterans in certain birth cohorts.

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GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Mobility under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Asymmetric Effects across Gender and Age. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Francesco Grigoli and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that lockdowns had a larger impact on the mobility of women and younger cohorts.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Francesco Grigoli

GLO Discussion Paper No. 753, 2021

Mobility under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Asymmetric Effects across Gender and AgeDownload PDF
by
Caselli, Francesca & Grigoli, Francesco & Sandri, Damiano & Spilimbergo, Antonio


GLO Fellow Francesco Grigoli

Author Abstract: Overall mobility declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of government lockdowns and voluntary social distancing. Yet, aggregate data mask important heterogeneous effects across segments of the population. Using unique mobility indicators based on anonymized and aggregate data provided by Vodafone for Italy, Portugal, and Spain, we find that lockdowns had a larger impact on the mobility of women and younger cohorts. Younger people also experienced a sharper drop in mobility in response to rising COVID-19 infections. Our findings, which are consistent across estimation methods and robust to a variety of tests, warn about a possible widening of gender and inter-generational inequality.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Assessing Targeted Containment Policies to Fight COVID-19. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Francesco Grigoli and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper provides an assessment of the targeted approach to COVID-19 containment. Under a targeted policy, the optimal containment reaches a larger portion of the population than under a blanket policy. Compared to a blanket policy, a targeted approach results in a smaller death count.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Francesco Grigoli

GLO Discussion Paper No. 752, 2021

Assessing Targeted Containment Policies to Fight COVID-19 Download PDF
by
Checo, Ariadne & Grigoli, Francesco & Mota, Jose M.


GLO Fellow Francesco Grigoli

Author Abstract: The large economic costs of full-blown lockdowns in response to COVID-19 outbreaks, coupled with heterogeneous mortality rates across age groups, led to question non-discriminatory containment measures. In this paper we provide an assessment of the targeted approach to containment. We propose a SIR-macro model that allows for heterogeneous agents in terms of mortality rates and contact rates, and in which the government optimally bans people from working. We find that under a targeted policy, the optimal containment reaches a larger portion of the population than under a blanket policy and is held in place for longer. Compared to a blanket policy, a targeted approach results in a smaller death count. Yet, it is not a panacea: the recession is larger under such approach as the containment policy applies to a larger fraction of people, remains in place for longer, and herd immunity is achieved later. Moreover, we find that increased interactions between low- and high-risk individuals effectively reduce the benefits of a targeted approach to containment.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Consequences of War: Japan’s Demographic Transition and the Marriage Market. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Kota Ogasawara and GLO Fellow Mizuki Komura.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the decrease in the male to female sex ratio in World War II contributed to a lower decline in fertility and child mortality rates in postwar Japan.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Mizuki Komura

GLO Discussion Paper No. 750, 2021

Consequences of War: Japan’s Demographic Transition and the Marriage Market Download PDF

by
Ogasawara, Kota & Komura, Mizuki

GLO Fellow Mizuki Komura

Author Abstract: This study explores the effects of imbalances in the sex ratio, and their impact on intra-household bargaining, on both the quantity and the quality of children. We first present the theoretical model of intra-household bargaining in the presence of conflicting family goals within a couple, and show that male scarcity (a decrease in the male to female sex ratio) induces an increase in the number of children, but a decrease in the quality of children. Second, using the impact of World War II on the sex ratio, as a quasi-natural experiment, we establish empirically that the decrease in the male to female sex ratio in World War II contributed to a lower decline in fertility and child mortality rates in postwar Japan. In particular, the fertility rate would have fallen by an additional 12% and the child mortality rate by an additional 13% between 1948 and 1970, in the absence of the decrease in the sex ratio.

Featured image: Stijn-Swinnen-on-unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Identity and Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Maria Rosaria Carillo and GLO Fellows Vincenzo Lombardo & Tiziana Venittelli.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Italy that immigrants with stronger feelings of belonging to the societies of both the host and home country have higher employment rates, while those who exclusively identify with the host country culture do not have a net occupational advantage.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 749, 2021

Identity and Labor Market Outcomes of Immigrants Download PDF
by
Carillo, Maria Rosaria & Lombardo, Vincenzo & Venittelli, Tiziana

GLO Fellows Vincenzo Lombardo & Tiziana Venittelli

Author Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between social identity and labor market outcomes of immigrants. Using survey data from Italy, we provide robust evidence that immigrants with stronger feelings of belonging to the societies of both the host and home country have higher employment rates, while those who exclusively identify with the host country culture do not have a net occupational advantage. Analysis of the potential mechanisms suggests that, although simultaneous identification with host and home country groups can be costly, the positive effect of multiple social identities is especially triggered by the enlarged information transmission and in-group favoritism that identification with, and membership of, extended communities ensure.

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GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Do research universities boost regional economic development? Evidence from China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Shuai Chu and Xiangbo Liu.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for China that research universities can have negative effects on local economic development.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Shuai Chu

GLO Discussion Paper No. 748, 2021

Do research universities boost regional economic development? – Evidence from ChinaDownload PDF
by
Chu, Shuai & Liu, Xiangbo

GLO Affiliate Shuai Chu


Author Abstract: This paper studies whether research universities can boost regional economic development through an exogenous shock of a forced relocation of a research university in China. We analyze the development in the treated regions compared with a set of control regions that are created using the synthetic control method and find that research universities can have negative effects on local economic development. We then perform a series of robustness checks. Our main results carry through. By employing a more exogenous shock and more reliable identification strategies, our study provides evidence that research universities do not necessarily promote regional economic development.

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GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Emigration and development. What are the links? A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Marina Murat.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that policies supporting development in low-income countries are associated with less emigration to all destinations, including the rich economies.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Marina Murat

GLO Discussion Paper No. 747, 2021

Emigration and development. What are the links? Download PDF
by
Murat, Marina

GLO Fellow Marina Murat


Author Abstract: The ‘mobility transition’ hypothesis – with emigration first increasing and then decreasing as a country develops – (Zelinsky, 1971) is often interpreted as a stylised fact, which bears the implication that immigration into rich countries will grow as low-income countries develop. This paper tests the relationships between development and emigration from 130 developing countries during 25 years. Results, robust to different semiparametric and parametric specifications, show that emigration from low to middle-income countries declines as income increases, education improves or population growth slows down. The stage of development at home also affects the main destinations of emigration. Immigration into rich economies increases from countries at intermediate levels of development. Hence, policies supporting development in low-income countries are associated with less emigration to all destinations, including that to rich economies.

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GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Kicking You When You’re Already Down: The Multipronged Impact of Austerity on Crime. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Corrado Giulietti and Brendon McConnell.

A new GLO Discussion Paper documents unambiguous evidence of a negative spillover of the welfare reforms of UK Welfare Reform Act 2012 at the heart of the government’s austerity program on social welfare, which reinforced the direct inequality-worsening effect of this program.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Corrado Giulietti

GLO Discussion Paper No. 746, 2021

Kicking You When You’re Already Down: The Multipronged Impact of Austerity on Crime Download PDF
by
Giulietti, Corrado & McConnell, Brendon

GLO Fellow Corrado Giulietti

Author Abstract: The UK Welfare Reform Act 2012 imposed a series of welfare cuts, which disproportionately impacted ex-ante poorer areas. In this paper, we consider the impact of these austerity measures on two different but complementary elements of crime – the crime rate and the less-studied concentration of crime – over the period 2011-2015 in England and Wales, and document four new facts. First, areas more exposed to the welfare reforms experience increased levels of crime, an effect driven by a rise in violent crime. Second, both violent and property crime become more concentrated within an area due to the welfare reforms. Third, it is ex-ante more deprived neighborhoods that bear the brunt of the crime increases over this period. Fourth, we find no evidence that the welfare reforms increased recidivism, suggesting that the changes in crime we find are likely driven by new criminals. Combining these results, we document unambiguous evidence of a negative spillover of the welfare reforms at the heart of the UK government’s austerity program on social welfare, which reinforced the direct inequality-worsening effect of this program. More deprived districts are more exposed to the welfare reforms, and it is these districts that then experience the further negative consequences of the reforms via increased crime. Our findings underscore the importance of considering both multiple dimensions of crime as well as considering different levels of spatial aggregation of crime data. Given that it is violent crime that responds to the (economicallybased) welfare cuts, our work also highlights the need to develop better economic models of non-rational crime.

Featured image: Photo-by-Jose-Antonio-Gallego-Vázquez-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Immigrant Supply of Marketable Child Care and Native Fertility in Italy: A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Rama Dasi Mariani and Furio Camillo Rosati.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the recent increase in the supply of child-care services by immigrants has positively affected native fertility in Italy.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Rama Dasi Mariani

GLO Discussion Paper No. 745, 2021

Immigrant Supply of Marketable Child Care and Native Fertility in Italy Download PDF
by
Mariani, R. D. & Rosati, F. C.

GLO Fellows Rama Dasi Mariani and Furio Camillo Rosati

Author Abstract: The availability of child-care services has often been advocated as one of the instruments to counter the fertility decline observed in many high-income countries. In the recent past large inflows of low-skilled migrants have substantially increased the supply of child-care services. In this paper we examine if the flow of immigrants as actually affected fertility exploiting the natural experiment occurred in Italy in 2007, when a large inflow of migrants – many of them specialized in the supply of child care – arrived unexpectedly. With a difference-in-differences method, we show that newly arrived immigrant female workers have increased the number of native births by roughly 2 per cent. We validate our result by the implementation of an instrumental variable approach and several robustness tests, all concluding that the increase in the supply of child-care services by immigrants has positively affected native fertility choice.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Self-employment and Subjective Well-Being. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Martin Binder & Ann-Kathrin Blankenberg.

A new GLO Discussion Paper discusses evidence and explanations why self-employment is positively associated with job satisfaction.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 744, 2021

Self-employment and Subjective Well-Being Download PDF
by
Binder, Martin & Blankenberg, Ann-Kathrin

GLO Fellows Martin Binder & Ann-Kathrin Blankenberg

Author Abstract: Self-employment contributes to employment growth and innovativeness and many individuals want to become self-employed due to the autonomy and exibility it brings. Using “subjective well-being” as a broad summary measure that evaluates an individual’s experience of being self-employed, the chapter discusses evidence and explanations why self-employment is positively associated with job satisfaction, even though the self-employed often earn less than their employed peers, work longer hours and experience more stress and higher job demands. Despite being more satisfied with their jobs, the self-employed do not necessarily enjoy higher overall life satisfaction, which is due to heterogeneity of types of self-employment, as well as motivational factors, work characteristics and institutional setups across countries.

Featured image: Photo-by-Elijah-Hail-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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GLO Fellows Richard A. Easterlin and Kelsey J. O’Connor debate the famous Easterlin Paradox in a new GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper debates the famous Easterlin Paradox that states that at a point in time happiness varies directly with income, both among and within nations, but over time the long-term growth rates of happiness and income are not significantly related.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 743, 2020

The Easterlin Paradox Download PDF
by
Easterlin, Richard A. & O’Connor, Kelsey J.

GLO Fellows Richard A. Easterlin & Kelsey J. O’Connor

Author Abstract: The Easterlin Paradox states that at a point in time happiness varies directly with income, both among and within nations, but over time the long-term growth rates of happiness and income are not significantly related. The principal reason for the contradiction is social comparison. At a point in time those with higher income are happier because they are comparing their income to that of others who are less fortunate, and conversely for those with lower income. Over time, however, as incomes rise throughout the population, the incomes of one’s comparison group rise along with one’s own income and vitiates the otherwise positive effect of own-income growth on happiness. Critics of the Paradox mistakenly present the positive relation of happiness to income in cross-section data or in short-term time fluctuations as contradicting the nil relation of long-term trends.

Featured image: Photo-by-Elijah-Hail-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The Safest Time to Fly: Pandemic Response in the Era of Fox News. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Michael Poyker and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper documents a harming effect of the Fox News Channel in the United States on physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 742, 2020

The Safest Time to Fly: Pandemic Response in the Era of Fox News Download PDF
by
Ananyev, Maxim & Poyker, Michael & Tian, Yuan

GLO Fellow Michael Poyker

Author Abstract: We document a causal effect of conservative Fox News Channel in the United States on physical distancing during COVID-19 pandemic. We measure county-level mobility covering all U.S. states and District of Columbia produced by GPS pings to 15-17 million smartphones and zip-code-level mobility using Facebook location data. Then, using the historical position of Fox News Channel in the cable lineup as the source of exogenous variation, we show that increased exposure to Fox News led to a smaller reduction in distance traveled and smaller increase in the probability to stay home after the national emergency declaration in the United States. Our results show that slanted media can have a harmful effect on containment efforts during a pandemic by affecting people’s behaviour.

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More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Did a Successful Fight against the COVID-19 Pandemic Come at a Cost? Impacts of the Outbreak on Employment Outcomes in Vietnam. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Hai-Anh Dang & Cuong Nguyen.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the successful lockdown in Vietnam kept mortality amazingly low, but had negative effects on unemployment, the temporary layoff rate, and the quality of employment. It also reduced workers’ numbers of working hours and their monthly incomes and wages.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 741, 2020

Did a Successful Fight against the COVID-19 pandemic Come at a Cost? Impacts of the Outbreak on Employment outcomes in Vietnam Download PDF
by
Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Nguyen, Cuong Viet

GLO Fellows Hai-Anh Dang & Cuong Nguyen

Author Abstract: Vietnam is widely praised for its successful fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. The country has had an extremely low mortality rate of 35 deaths to date (out of a population of approximately 100 million) and currently has no community transmission. We offer the first study that examines the effects of the COVID-19-induced lockdown on various employment outcomes for Vietnam. We employ difference-in-differences econometric models to estimate the causal effects of the lockdown, using rich individual-level data from the quarterly Labor Force Surveys. We find that the lockdown increases the unemployment rate, the temporary layoff rate, and decreases the quality of employment. It also reduces workers’ numbers of working hours and their monthly incomes and wages. Our estimation results remain robust to different model specifications and estimation samples. Further heterogeneity analysis suggests that the effects vary across education levels and occupation sectors but are similar across regions or provinces with different lockdown durations.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Gender Inequality in Nutrition Intake: Evidence from a Large Assistance Program. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Shiying Zhang and Qing Wang.

A new GLO Discussion Paper examines the effect of one of the largest nutrition assistance programs in early life covering poor rural China. Nutrition supplements effectively increase boys’ weight and reduce their probability of being underweight, while no effect is observed for girls of similar age.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Shiying Zhang

GLO Discussion Paper No. 740, 2020

Gender Inequality in Nutrition Intake: Evidence from a Large Assistance Program Download PDF
by
Wang, Qing & Zhang, Shiying

GLO Fellow Shiying Zhang

Author Abstract: This paper examines the growth effect of one of the largest nutrition assistance programs in early life. The program covers 5.8 million children in poor rural China and provides 6-24-month old children with a free nutrition supplement that contains nine essential micronutrients. We utilize a phase-in procedure by county for identification and estimate its impact on several early-life health indicators. Robust evidence shows that such nutrition supplements effectively increase boys’ weight and reduce their probability of being underweight. No effect is observed on girls of similar age. These health indicators are related to long-term human capital development. The gender differences in policy impact that are identified in this paper have important implications for nutrition subsidy in the early years of life in developing countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Productivity outcomes in online labor markets and within-task complexity and difficultly. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Nicholas Giannakopoulos and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the productivity measures used of workers are negatively related to the difficulty and complexity of a specific sub-task.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Nicholas Giannakopoulos

GLO Discussion Paper No. 739, 2020

Productivity outcomes in online labor markets and within-task complexity and difficultly Download PDF
by
Mourelatos, Evaggelos & Giannakopoulos, Nicholas & Tzagarakis, Manolis

GLO Fellow Nicholas Giannakopoulos

Author Abstract: We analyze the impact of within-task difficulty and complexity on workers’ productivity in online labor markets. Using a randomized control quasi-experiment in AMT we are able to define the difficulty and complexity embodied in requested sub-tasks within a problem-solved task. We find that our productivity measures are negatively related to the difficulty and complexity of a specific sub-task. This finding is robust to several sources of workers’ heterogeneity and to different pay schemes.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Identity and Learning: a study on the effect of student-teacher gender matching on learning outcomes. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Anirban Mukherjee and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper examines whether students’ and teachers’ identity play any role in the learning outcome of students.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Anirban Mukherjee

GLO Discussion Paper No. 738, 2020

Identity and Learning: a study on the effect of student-teacher gender matching on learning outcomes Download PDF
by
Bhattacharya, Sukanta & Dasgupta, Aparajita & Mandal, Kumarjit & Mukherjee, Anirban

GLO Fellow Aparajita Dasgupta & Anirban Mukherjee

Author Abstract: In this paper we examine whether students’ and teachers’ identity play any role in the learning outcome of students. Specifically, we ask if a student benefits by learning from a teacher of her same gender. Unlike the existing literature which explains such interaction through role model effect or Pygmalion effect, we explain such interaction in terms of gender based sorting behaviour across private and public schools. Our results are driven by two critical differences between male and female individuals. For male and female teachers, the difference comes from their differential transaction costs of traveling to schools at remote locations. For students, the difference between male and female members comes from the differential returns to education accrued to their parents; for girl students, a lower fraction of the return comes to their parental families as they start living with their husband’s family after their marriages. These factors create a sorting pattern which makes the female teachers and students of the highest quality attend private schools in urban location. This creates a positive gender matching effect only for urban, private schools. We find support for our theoretical predictions when we test them using Young Lives Survey (YLS) data collected from Andhra Pradesh.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Price, sales, and the business cycle: a time series principal component analysis. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Fernando Borraz and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds a positive and significant relationship between sales and unemployment, and performs a time series principal component analysis to study the relationship.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Fernando Borraz

GLO Discussion Paper No. 735, 2020

Price, sales, and the business cycle: a time series principal component analysis Download PDF
by
Borraz, Fernando & Livan, Giacomo & Rodríguez-Martínez, Anahí & Ricardo, Pablo

GLO Fellow Fernando Borraz

Author Abstract: The main contribution of this work consist on studying sales behaviour and their relationship with local market conditions like labor market indicators through a time series principal component analysis. We study the correlation structure of a large database on prices and found that all product sectors share a common correlation structure and the highest correlation and significance is achieved between employment variation and the first principal component, mostly in the second week of the following month. Sales or promotions, are a channel for price flexibility because firms can use them to change effective prices keeping sticky reference prices. We use a rich database of retail prices from Uruguay to characterize prices’ flexibility, the behavior of sales, and their relationship with local market conditions like labor market indicators. Finally, we find a positive and significant relationship between sales and unemployment and perform a time series principal component analysis to study these relationships.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Mobile applications aiming to facilitate immigrants’ societal integration and overall level of integration, health and mental health. Does artificial intelligence enhance outcomes? A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Nick Drydakis.

Using panel data on immigrant populations from Europe, Asia and Africa, a new GLO Discussion Paper finds positive associations between the number of mobile applications in use aiming to facilitate immigrants’ societal integration (m-Integration) and increased level of integration (Ethnosizer), good overall health and mental health.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Nick Drydakis

GLO Discussion Paper No. 734, 2020

Mobile applications aiming to facilitate immigrants’ societal integration and overall level of integration, health and mental health. Does artificial intelligence enhance outcomes? Download PDF
by
Drydakis, Nick

GLO Fellow Nick Drydakis

Author Abstract: Using panel data on immigrant populations from European, Asian and African countries the study estimates positive associations between the number of mobile applications in use aiming to facilitate immigrants’ societal integration (m-Integration) and increased level of integration (Ethnosizer), good overall health (EQ-VAS) and mental health (CESD-20). It is estimated that the patterns are gender sensitive. In addition, it is found that m-Integration applications in relation to translation and voice assistants, public services, and medical services provide the highest returns on immigrants’ level of integration, health/mental health status. For instance, translation and voice assistant applications are associated with a 4% increase in integration and a 0.8% increase in good overall health. Moreover, m-Integration applications aided by artificial intelligence (AI) are associated with increased health/mental health and integration levels among immigrants. We indicate that AI by providing customized search results, peer reviewed e-learning, professional coaching on pronunciation, real-time translations, and virtual communication for finding possible explanations for health conditions might bring better quality services facilitating immigrants’ needs. This is the first known study to introduce the term ‘m-Integration’, quantify associations between applications, health/mental health and integration for immigrants, and assess AI’s role in enhancing the aforementioned outcomes.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Gender inequality in COVID-19 times: Evidence from UK Prolific participants. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Sonia Oreffice and GLO Fellow Climent Quintana-Domeque.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies gender differences across multiple dimensions in individual responses to Covid-19 for the UK and attempts to model the various determinants.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Climent Quintana-Domeque


GLO Discussion Paper No. 737, 2020

Gender inequality in COVID-19 times: Evidence from UK Prolific participants Download PDF
by
Oreffice, Sonia & Quintana-Domeque, Climent

GLO Fellow Climent Quintana-Domeque

Author Abstract: We investigate gender differences across multiple dimensions after three months of the first UK lockdown of March 2020, using an online sample of approximately 1,500 Prolific respondents residents in the UK. We find that women’s mental health was worse than men’s along the four metrics we collected data on, that women were more concerned about getting and spreading the virus, and that women perceived the virus as more prevalent and lethal than men did. Women were also more likely to expect a new lockdown or virus outbreak by the end of 2020, and were more pessimistic about the contemporaneous and future state of the UK economy, as measured by their forecasted contemporaneous and future unemployment rates. We also show that, between earlier in 2020 before the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic and June 2020, women had increased childcare and housework more than men. Neither the gender gaps in COVID-19-related health and economic concerns nor the gender gaps in the increase in hours of childcare and housework can be accounted for by a rich set of control variables. Instead, we find that the gender gap in mental health can be partially accounted for by the difference in COVID-19-related health concerns between men and women.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Unequal effects of the economic cycle on human capital investment. Evidence from Italian panel data. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Luca Bonacini.

A new GLO Discussion Paper for Italy suggests that measures directed towards youths from poorer households to promote their enrollment in non-compulsory education should be strengthened when economic conditions improve.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Luca Bonacini

GLO Discussion Paper No. 733, 2020

Unequal effects of the economic cycle on human capital investment. Evidence from Italian panel data Download PDF
by
Bonacini, Luca

GLO Fellows Luca Bonacini

Author Abstract: Human Capital Theory considers individuals’ education as an investment in terms of money, time, effort, and the renouncement of income opportunities that they expect will be compensated during their working life. While these benefits are mainly in the long run, direct and indirect costs are conditioned by the present circumstances, and in particular, by the macroeconomic conditions. The literature investigating the influence of the business cycle on enrolment decisions often suggests a counter-cyclical relationship without considering that economic fluctuations can produce heterogeneous effects among households facing different economic situations. Through a fixed effects regression based on panel data from the Italian component of the EU-SILC survey, I find the existence of a counter-cyclical propensity to enrol that is symmetric to the stages of the economic cycle. However, after disaggregating the analysis by household income quartiles, results show that a 1% increase in GDP reduces the probability of the poorest individuals being enrolled in non-compulsory education by 1.2%, while the wealthier portion of the population shows an a-cyclical relationship. The policy implications of these results are particularly important as they suggest that measures directed towards youths from poorer households to promote their enrolment in non-compulsory education should be strengthened when economic conditions improve.

Featured image: Photo-by-j-zamora-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The Impact of a Reentry and Aftercare Program on Recidivism. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Colin Cannonier & Monica Galloway Burke and Ed Mitchell.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the significant impact of a reentry and aftercare service program in the US on the likelihood of returning to prison by ex-offenders which is found to be successful.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 732, 2020

The Impact of a Reentry and Aftercare Program on Recidivism Download PDF
by
Cannonier, Colin & Galloway Burke, Monica & Mitchell, Ed

GLO Fellows Colin Cannonier & Monica Galloway Burke

Author Abstract: In this paper, we explore the impact of a reentry and aftercare service program on the likelihood of returning to prison by ex-offenders. Using administrative data within a difference-in-differences design, we find that this social program is associated with a reduction in recidivism rates. Benchmark estimates show that the program was associated with estimated reductions in the probability of recidivating of 6.0 to 8.7 percentage points. The estimate appears to be economically significant as it implies an estimated treated effect in the 15.8 to 19.2 percent range. We consider the heterogeneous effects of the program on reducing recidivism according to race, age group and program type. The program helped to reduce recidivism among Whites but not Blacks; older participants were the main beneficiaries while the effectiveness of the program was observed amongst older participants. Back-of-the-envelope cost-savings analysis is incorporated to estimate the potential savings to the state arising from the reduction in recidivism rates likely attributable to the program. The findings are robust to sample selection bias, alternative specifications and estimation techniques. Our results offer some implications for the role of faith-based social programs within the context of criminal justice reform to combat reentry of former inmates. They also provide a cautionary tale about the need to evaluate programs not just based on their overall effect.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Should we cheer together? Gender differences in instantaneous well-being during joint and solo activities: An application to COVID-19 lockdowns. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow José Alberto Molina & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies for the UK and the USA how the increased family time provided by the COVID-19 pandemic has affected well-being differently between countries and gender.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.


GLO Discussion Paper No. 736, 2020

Should we cheer together? Gender differences in instantaneous well-being during joint and solo activities: An application to COVID-19 lockdowns Download PDF
by
Giménez-Nadal, José Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Velilla, Jorge

GLO Fellow José Alberto Molina

Author Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has confined millions in their homes, representing an unprecedented case for spending more time together with family members. This is a challenge for households, given that more time with the partner or children may not necessarily translate into increased well-being. This paper explores subjective well-being in the uses of time for US and UK workers, differentiating between solo activities and activities done with family members, at home and outside the home. Using American and British time use surveys, we compute the instant utility associated with paid work, unpaid work, leisure, and childcare activities. The results show that workers prefer joint leisure to solo leisure, and that significant differences exist between female and male workers for solo and joint market work and housework. Furthermore, we simulate a lockdown situation, which suggests diverging effects of a lockdown in the US and the UK, and on women and men. The conclusions of this paper may help to assess the psychological consequences of COVID-19 lockdowns, beyond the negative economic and labour market consequences.

Featured image: Photo-by-Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Girls Not Brides: Evolution of Child Marriage in Pakistan. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Rashid Javed and Mazhar Mughal.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that child marriage in Pakistan has decreased among women from wealthy and urban households, but is increasingly concentrated among older and less educated women and those belonging to poor, rural households.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 731, 2020

Girls Not Brides: Evolution of Child Marriage in Pakistan Download PDF
by
Javed, Rashid & Mughal, Mazhar

GLO Fellow Rashid Javed

Author Abstract: Child marriage is still widespread in countries across the Indian Subcontinent. The practice has important consequences for the health and well-being of the woman and the child. In this study, we examine the incidence of child marriage in Pakistan and the changes that have taken place over time in the profile of the women who marry before turning 18. We use data from all the four rounds of the representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), namely 1990 − 91, 2006 − 07, 2012 − 13 and 2017 − 18. With the help of these data, we observe the evolution of the individual and household characteristics of early-marrying women over a span of three decades. We find that the practice of child marriage has become much less generalized over the past three decades. In 2017−18, 39% of married women of child-bearing age (i.e. those between the age of 15 and 49) had got married before the age of 18. Though still high, it is nonetheless lower than the 54% incidence found in 1990 − 91. The decrease is particularly significant among women from wealthy and urban households. The incidence of child marriage is increasingly concentrated among women who are older and less educated and those belonging to poor, rural households. Elimination of the harmful practice of child marriage is crucial for achieving the fifth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) which deals with gender equality. The findings of the study highlight the close links present between child marriage, poverty and urbanization.

Featured image: Hamid Roshaan on Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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School to Work Transition and Macroeconomic Conditions in the Turkish Economy. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Ömer Tuğsal Doruk & Francesco Pastore.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the consequences of the macroeconomic situation in Turkey for school-to-work transitions.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 730, 2020

School to Work Transition and Macroeconomic Conditions in the Turkish Economy Download PDF
by
Doruk, Ömer Tuğsal & Pastore, Francesco

GLO Fellows Ömer Tuğsal Doruk & Francesco Pastore

Author Abstract: In emerging market economies, young people feel like little boats in the ocean, due to the low and uncertain macroeconomic context. In the present study, we examine the school-to-work transition in Turkey over the period 2014-2017 by using a monthly dataset. As most emerging market economies, the Turkish one faces a set of different macroeconomic conditions which make it a very hard task for many young graduates to find a job . We use panel logit models which allow studying the determinants of the probability of school-to-work transition completion with a time variant model. We look at such macroeconomic factors as GDP growth, industrial production index, real sector confidence index, real exchange rate and interest rate. In addition, we use some classifications for estimating the wage model for the new graduates and estimate by panel logit models the probability for young graduates of getting a white-collar job. Besides, the estimates are repeated for boom and bust periods, and in credit expansion periods.

Featured image: Photo-by-Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Birth in Hard Times When You Belong To Minorities. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Veronica Grembi and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the impact of the 2008 recession on the health of immigrant newborns in Italy and finds that the negative effects on immigrants are not equally distributed across ethnicities, but rather they are driven by the main economic activity of the ethnicity and its related network at the municipal level.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 729, 2020

Birth in Hard Times When You Belong To Minorities Download PDF
by
Bertoli, Paola & Grembi, Veronica & Nguyen, The Linh Bao
Forthcoming 2021: Journal of Population Economics.

GLO Fellow Veronica Grembi

Author Abstract: Combining a unique dataset of birth records with municipal-level real estate information, we assess the impact of the 2008 recession on the health of immigrant newborns in Italy. Health at birth (e.g., low birth weight) of immigrants deteriorated more than health at birth of Italians. The negative effects on immigrants are not equally distributed across ethnicities, but rather they are driven by the main economic activity of the ethnicity and its related network at the municipal level. Immigrants whose ethnicity is mainly employed in the sectors most affected during the recession, suffered the most. By contrast, the recession hardship is mitigated for immigrants in municipalities where their ethnic network is organized through more registered immigrant associations. The characteristics of ethnic groups and their organization at the municipal level do not explain the heterogeneous effects on Italian newborns and this confirms network rather than neighborhood effects.

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GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Unions, Collective Bargaining and Firm Performance. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Patrice Laroche.

A new GLO Discussion Paper surveys the respective literature and provides a mixed picture about the role of unions for firm performance, for instance researchers found higher productivity but lower profitability.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 728, 2020

Unions, Collective Bargaining and Firm Performance Download PDF
by
Laroche, Patrice

GLO Fellow Patrice Laroche

Author Abstract: The impact of unions on firm performance has been the subject of debate and controversy in most industrialized countries, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. The purpose of this chapter is to review and assess the scope and limitations of the economic analysis of unions as well as the controversies surrounding the conclusions of existing empirical research. Although it is difficult to draw firm and general conclusions on the effects of unions on firm performance, the existing results lead us to consider unions not solely in terms of their costs for the company. Empirical results suggest that unionism is often associated with higher productivity but this relationship might vary across industries, institutional contexts and over time. Estimates of the causal mechanisms through which unions affect productivity allow a better understanding of the effects of unions. The literature on the effect of unions on productivity recognizes that part of this effect may work through reducing employee turnover and other mechanisms, such as technological and organizational innovations, which are essential factors of productivity growth. Recent studies dealing with the effects of unions on firm profits support Freeman and Medoff’s (1984) conclusion that unionization is associated with lower profitability. Finally, union activities, especially collective bargaining, trade off some economic efficiency for greater justice in workplaces and reduced inequalities.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Unmet health care need and income-related horizontal equity in access during the COVID-19 pandemic. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Apostolos Davillas and Andrew M. Jones.

A new GLO Discussion Paper assesses how the UK health care system performed against the norm of horizontal equity in health care access during the first wave of COVID-19 wave. There is no evidence that horizontal equity, with respect to income, was violated for NHS hospital outpatient and inpatient care during the first wave of the pandemic.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 727, 2020

Unmet health care need and income-related horizontal equity in access during the COVID-19 pandemic Download PDF
by
Davillas, Apostolos & Jones, Andrew M.

GLO Fellows Apostolos Davillas and Andrew M. Jones

Author Abstract: Using monthly data from the Understanding Society (UKHLS) COVID-19 Survey we analyse the evolution of unmet need and assess how the UK health care system performed against the norm of horizontal equity in health care access during the first wave of COVID-19 wave. Unmet need was most evident for hospital care, and less pronounced for primary health services (medical helplines, GP consultations, local pharmacist advice, over the counter medications and prescriptions). Despite this, there is no evidence that horizontal equity, with respect to income, was violated for NHS hospital outpatient and inpatient care during the first wave of the pandemic. There is evidence of pro-rich inequities in access to GP consultations, prescriptions and medical helplines at the peak of the first wave, but these were eliminated as the pandemic progressed. There are persistent pro-rich inequities for services that relate to individuals’ ability to pay (over the counter medications and advice from the local pharmacist).

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Unions and Workers’ Well-being. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Laszlo Goerke.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews the literature on the wellbeing of union members. Union members can be expected to exhibit higher job satisfaction than comparable non-members, but this is not consistent with empirical findings.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 726, 2020

Unions and Workers’ Well-being Download PDF
by
Goerke, Laszlo

GLO Fellow Laszlo Goerke

Author Abstract: If individuals join a trade union their utility should increase. Therefore, union members can be expected to exhibit higher job satisfaction than comparable non-members. This expectation is not consistent with empirical findings. The evidence sometimes indicates that union members have lower job satisfaction, but overall suggests the absence of a robust correlation. This survey discusses empirically relevant determinants of the relationship between trade union membership and job satisfaction. It distinguishes settings in which a trade union provides public goods from those in which it restricts the provision of benefits to its members. Furthermore, the survey summarizes the empirical evidence and indicates possible future research issues.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Worker Voice and Political Participation in Civil Society. A new GLO Discussion Paper of GLO Fellow John W. Budd and J. Ryan Lamare

A new GLO Discussion Paper outlines the key theoretical channels by which worker voice can affect political and civic participation, highlights important methodological challenges in identifying causal relationships and mechanisms, and summarizes the major research findings pertaining to nonunion and union voice.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

John W. Budd

GLO Discussion Paper No. 725, 2020

Worker Voice and Political Participation in Civil Society Download PDF
by
Budd, John W. & Lamare, J. Ryan

GLO Fellow John W. Budd

Author Abstract: Worker voice can relate to political and civic participation in numerous ways. Individual and collective voice can equip individuals with skills and attitudes that increase political engagement, and unions also explicitly encourage members to be politically aware, vote, and run for office. Labor unions and union federations are also often direct participants in the political and policy-making process. This chapter outlines the key theoretical channels by which worker voice can affect political and civic participation, highlights important methodological challenges in identifying causal relationships and mechanisms, and summarizes the major research findings pertaining to nonunion and union voice. In summarizing the major theoretical alternatives, a distinction is made between (a) experiential spillovers in which political and civic participation is facilitated by workers’ experience with voice, and (b) intentional efforts by voice institutions, especially labor unions, to increase political and civic participation. In practice, however, the experiential versus intentional transmission mechanisms can be hard to distinguish, so the review of the empirical record is structured around individual-level voice versus collective voice, especially labor unions. Attention is also devoted to the aggregate effects of and participation in the political arena by labor unions. Overall, a broad approach is taken which includes not only classic issues such higher voting rates among union members, but also emerging issues such as whether union members are less likely to vote for extremist parties and the conditions under which labor unions are likely to be influential in the political sphere.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Social Identity and Aspiration – Double Jeopardy or Intersectionality? Evidence from Rural India. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Sudipa Sarkar and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that social identity reflected by caste and gender affect future aspirations negatively.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Sudipa Sarkar

GLO Discussion Paper No. 724, 2020

Social Identity and Aspiration – Double Jeopardy or Intersectionality? Evidence from Rural India Download PDF
by
Sarkar, Sudipa & Chakravorty, Bhaskar & Lyonette, Clare

GLO Fellow Sudipa Sarkar

Author Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between individuals’ social identity and their future aspirations in a developing country. We analyse primary survey data from participants of a large-scale skill-training programme that targets rural poor youths in India, focusing on two dimensions of individuals’ identity: caste and gender. Our empirical findings suggest that training participants from the most socially disadvantaged groups – Scheduled Tribe (ST) and Scheduled Caste (SC) – have significantly lower income aspiration when compared to Other Backward Class (OBC) and Other Caste (OC) participants. Female participants also have significantly lower aspiration than their male counterparts. The aspiration gaps exist even after controlling for various background characteristics, including participants’ pre-training personality traits and soft skills. Individual-level and household-level factors mediate some of the aspiration gaps based on caste and gender. We find evidence that for SC/ST female participants, the disadvantages on both caste and gender dimensions add up; this is reflected in their lower income aspiration levels, in comparison with all other groups. Thus, our results support the hypothesis of “double jeopardy” instead of “intersectionality” in this context.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Heterogeneity in effective VAT rates across native and migrant households in France, Germany and Spain. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Michael Christl and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the distributional properties of VAT to reveal who bears higher payments, natives or migrants. There are no gaps in Germany, but in France and Spain.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Michael Christl

GLO Discussion Paper No. 723, 2020

Heterogeneity in effective VAT rates across native and migrant households in France, Germany and Spain Download PDF
by
Christl, Michael & Papini, Andrea & Tumino, Alberto

GLO Fellow Michael Christl

Author Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the distributional properties of VAT analysing who bears higher VAT payments between native and migrant household in France, Germany and Spain. The question is of interest both from a distributional and fiscal perspective, fitting the ongoing debate of the net fiscal impact of immigration. Using data from the 2010 EU HBS and a simple VAT calculator we show the existence of gaps in effective VAT rates between native and migrant households in France and in Spain, while no significant gap is observed in Germany. Our results also confirm the existing evidence on the regressivity of VAT with respect to income. These findings suggest that the fairness consequences of VAT reforms should be carefully assessed and advocate for the importance of considering indirect taxation when assessing the fiscal cost of migration.

Featured image: Photo-by-Mika-Baumeister-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Productivity Loss amid Invisible Pollution. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Yun Qiu and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the influence of ozone pollution on labor productivity in China.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Yun Qiu

GLO Discussion Paper No. 722, 2020

Productivity Loss amid Invisible Pollution Download PDF
by
Wang, Chunchao & Lin, Qianqian & Qiu, Yun

GLO Fellow Yun Qiu

Author Abstract: Ground-level ozone is a continuing problem worldwide, but research on the influences of ozone pollution on labour productivity in developing countries is insufficient. We investigate the effect of ozone pollution on outdoor worker productivity in the service sector using a unique panel dataset of courier productivities from a top five express company in China. Using an instrumental variable constructed from ozone pollution of upwind nearby cities, we find that a one-standard-deviation increase in daily ozone pollution decreases courier productivity by 8.91%. The same increase in ozone in the previous 30 days decreases worker productivity by 37.9%.

Featured image: Ella-Ivanescu-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Back to the past: the historical roots of labour-saving automation. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Maria Enrica Virgillito and Jacopo Staccioli.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies U.S. patenting activity to provide evidence on the history of labour-saving innovations back to the early 19th century.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 721, 2020

Back to the past: the historical roots of labour-saving automation Download PDF
by
Staccioli, Jacopo & Virgillito, Maria Enrica

GLO Fellow Maria Enrica Virgillito

Author Abstract: This paper, relying on a still relatively unexplored long-term dataset on U.S. patenting activity, provides empirical evidence on the history of labour-saving innovations back to early 19th century. The identification of mechanisation/automation heuristics, retrieved via textual content analysis on current robotic technologies by Montobbio et al. (2020), allows to focus on a limited set of CPC codes where mechanisation and automation technologies are more prevalent. We track their time evolution, clustering, eventual emergence of wavy behaviour, and their comovements with long-term GDP growth. Our results challenge both the general-purpose technology approach and the strict 50-year Kondratiev cycle, while provide evidence of the emergence of erratic constellations of heterogeneous technological artefacts, in line with the developmentblock approach enabled by autocatalytic systems.

Featured image: georg-arthur-pflueger-on-unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Big Five Personality Traits and Sex. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Uwe Jirjahn and Martha Ottenbacher.

A new GLO Discussion Paper confirms that personality traits play a role for sexual feelings and behavior.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Uwe Jirjahn

GLO Discussion Paper No. 720, 2020

Big Five Personality Traits and Sex Download PDF
by
Jirjahn, Uwe & Ottenbacher, Martha

GLO Fellow Uwe Jirjahn

Author Abstract: Sexual well-being plays an important role in the quality of life. Against this background, we provide an economics-based approach to the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and various dimensions of sexuality. From a theoretical viewpoint, personality influences sexual well-being not only by how a person feels about sex, but also by how the person behaves in a sexual relationship. Personality shapes information sharing about sexual preferences, the way dissonant sexual preferences of the partners are handled, and the extent to which the person is committed to promises made to the partner. Using a large representative dataset from Germany, we find that personality traits play a role in a person’s own sexual satisfaction, in (the self-assessment of) fulfilling the partner’s sexual needs and desires, in sexual communication, in actual and desired frequency of sex, and in extradyadic affairs.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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How representative are social partners in Europe? The role of dissimilarity. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Pedro Martins and Marta Martínez Matute

A new GLO Discussion Paper argues that, when examining social partners’ representativeness, it is important to consider both affiliation and dissimilarity measures.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Pedro Martins

GLO Discussion Paper No. 718, 2020

How representative are social partners in Europe? The role of dissimilarity Download PDF
by
Martínez Matute, Marta & Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Author Abstract: Social partners (trade unions and employers’ associations) shape labour institutions and economic and social outcomes in many countries. In this paper, we argue that, when examining social partners’ representativeness, it is important to consider both affiliation and dissimilarity measures. The latter concerns the extent to which affiliated and non- affiliated firms or workers are distributed similarly across relevant dimensions, including firm size. In our analysis of European Company Survey data, we find that affiliation and dissimilarity measures correlate positively across countries, particularly in the case of employers’ associations. This result also holds across employers’ associations when we use firm population data for Portugal. Overall, we conclude that higher affiliation rates do not necessarily equate to more representative social partners as they can involve greater dissimilarity between affiliated and non-affiliated firms.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The Impact of ICT on Working from Home: Evidence from EU Countries. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Vahagn Jerbashian and Montserrat Vilalta-Bufi.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the fall in prices of information and communication technologies is associated with a significant increase in the share of employees who work from home.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Vahagn Jerbashian

GLO Discussion Paper No. 719, 2020

The Impact of ICT on Working from Home: Evidence from EU Countries Download PDF
by
Jerbashian, Vahagn & Vilalta-Bufi, Montserrat

GLO Fellow Vahagn Jerbashian

Author Abstract: We use data from 14 European countries and provide evidence that the fall in prices of information and communication technologies (ICT) is associated with a significant increase in the share of employees who work from home. Similar results hold within age, gender, and occupation groups. There are notable differences across age groups, however. The effect of the fall in ICT prices on working from home increases with age. A rationale for such a result is that the preference for working from home increases with age.

Featured image: Photo-by-Charles-Deluvio-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Parental Gender Stereotypes and Student Wellbeing in China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Xiangquan Zeng, GLO Affiliate Shuai Chu & GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that parental gender stereotypes strongly decrease student wellbeing in China.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 717, 2020

Parental Gender Stereotypes and Student Wellbeing in China Download PDF
by
Chu, Shuai & Zeng, Xiangquan & Zimmermann, Klaus F.

GLO Fellow Xiangquan Zeng, GLO Affiliate Shuai Chu & GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann

Author Abstract: Non-cognitive abilities are supposed to affect student’s educational performance, who are challenged by parental expectations and norms. Parental gender stereotypes are shown to strongly decrease student wellbeing in China. Students are strongly more depressed, feeling blue, unhappy, not enjoying life and sad with no male-female differences while parental education does not matter.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Social Assimilation and Labor Market Outcomes of Migrants in China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Shu Cai & GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that identifying as local residents significantly increase migrants’ hourly wages and reduce hours worked, although their monthly earnings remained barely changed. Further findings suggest that migrants with strong local identity are more likely to use local networks in job search, and to obtain jobs with higher average wages and lower average hours worked per day.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 716, 2020

Social Assimilation and Labor Market Outcomes of Migrants in ChinaDownload PDF
by
Cai, Shu & Zimmermann, Klaus F.

GLO Fellow Shu Cai & GLO President Klaus F. Zimmermann

Author Abstract: Previous research has found identity to be relevant for international migration, but has neglected internal mobility as in the case of the Great Chinese Migration. However, the context of the identities of migrants and their adaption in the migration process is likely to be quite different. The gap is closed by examining social assimilation and the effect on the labor market outcomes of migrants in China, the country with the largest record of internal mobility. Using instrumental variable estimation, the study finds that identifying as local residents significantly increase migrants’ hourly wages and reduce hours worked, although their monthly earnings remained barely changed. Further findings suggest that migrants with strong local identity are more likely to use local networks in job search, and to obtain jobs with higher average wages and lower average hours worked per day.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Pension and Health Services Utilization: Evidence from Social Pension Expansion in China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Xi Chen and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper evaluates the effects of pensions on older adults’ health service utilization, and estimates the size of pension required to influence such utilization.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 714, 2020
Pension and Health Services Utilization: Evidence from Social Pension Expansion in ChinaDownload PDF
by
Chen, Shanquan & Chen, Xi & Law, Stephen & Lucas, Henry & Tang, Shenlan & Long, Qian & Xue, Lei & Wang, Zheng

GLO Fellow Xi Chen

Author Abstract: The proportion of people aged 60 years or over is growing faster than other age groups. The well-being older adults depend heavily on their state of health. This study evaluates the effects of pensions on older adults’ health service utilization, and estimates the size of pension required to influence such utilization. Using a nationally representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we adopted a fuzzy regression discontinuity design and undertook segmented regression analysis. Pension demonstrated heterogeneous effects on health service utilization by income. We show that pension encouraged low-income individuals to use both outpatient (OR = 1.219, 95% 1.018-1.460) and inpatient services (OR = 1.269, 95% 1.020-1.579). In the meantime, it promoted self-treatment, specifically over-the-counter (OR = 1.208, 95% 1.037-1.407; OR = 1.206, 95% 1.024-1.419; respectively) and traditional Chinese medicines (OR = 1.452, 95% 1.094-1.932; OR = 1.456, 95% 1.079-1.955; respectively) among all income groups. However, receiving a pension had no effect on the frequency of outpatient or inpatient service use. Breakpoints for pension to promote health service utilization were mainly located in the range 55-95 CNY (7.1-12.3 EUR or 8.0-13.8 USD). Our study enriches the literature on pension and healthcare-seeking behaviour, and can be helpful in policy design and model formulation.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Gender-Specific Effects of Import Competition on Individual Fertility Decisions. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Andreea Piriu.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that import competition affects fertility through reduced earnings, though differently for male and female workers.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 713, 2020

Gender-Specific Effects of Import Competition on Individual Fertility DecisionsDownload PDF
by
Piriu, Andreea A.

GLO Affiliate Andreea Piriu

Author Abstract: This paper studies the effects of import competition from China and Eastern Europe (EE) on the fertility decisions of individuals in German manufacturing. Through the lens of gender, the paper uniquely contributes to the literature by linking import competition to longitudinal individual data to examine individual fertility. Two separate measures of import exposure are computed for competition from China and EE (amassing five countries), whose trade volumes with Germany have increased remarkably during the panel years. Fixed-effects instrumental variable (FEIV) estimation results show that individual fertility decreases by 1.6 p.p. and by 2.0 p.p. with rising competition from China and EE, respectively. The effects are robust and consistent across different subgroups of individuals. Effects of import competition are then inspected by gender, alongside potential mechanisms underlying fertility decisions. Both male and female workers’ fertility is affected via reduced earnings, though differently. The effect on male fertility is negative, with shortened employment duration. Conversely, the effect on female workers’ fertility is positive, with worsened working conditions. Furthermore, in line with family economics theory, these results suggest that there is a substitution effect in the labour supply of women, here prevalently concentrated in low-technology sectors: as female earnings fall and their opportunity cost of work is lower, the prospect of having children possibly becomes a more rewarding alternative.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The Economic and Social Impact of the Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19) on Migrant Remittances: An Overview of Tunisia and Morocco. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Hajer Habib.

A new GLO Discussion Paper analyzes the economic impact of Covid-19 by focusing on the implications for migrant remittances in Tunisia and Morocco.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 715, 2020

The Economic and Social Impact of the Novel Coronavirus (Covid-19) on Migrant Remittances: An Overview of Tunisia and MoroccoDownload PDF
by
Habib, Hajer

GLO Affiliate Hajer Habib

Author Abstract: The spread of the novel coronavirus and ‘stay at home’ measures in response to this global health crisis is profoundly changing societies and economies around the world. The objective of this work is to analyze the economic impact of Covid-19 by focusing on their implications on migrant remittances flows in Tunisia and Morocco. Indeed, we analyze in which countries, where individuals depend on remittances and where this dependence intersects with economic vulnerability and inadequate financial infrastructure. We use micro-data from the Afrobarometer survey, wave 2016-2018. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the results show that the decline in remittances will exacerbate economic difficulties during the crisis for individuals who depend on remittances. In Tunisia, 60% of individuals who say they are dependent on remittances are unemployed and 46% of those who say they are dependent on remittances face a lack of liquidity. In Morocco, 63% and 43%, respectively the share of individuals who say they are dependent on remittances are unemployed and the share with liquidity problems. Also, “stay at home” measures are likely to limit the ability of individuals to receive funds from abroad. Both countries have similar access to infrastructure, more than 46% of people who depend on remittances do not have a bank account and 37% do not have access to the internet. They would therefore be less able to adapt to a restriction on in-person remittance services during a lockdown to contain the Covid-19 virus. For this reason, the paradigm shift from cash to digital money is necessary.

More from the GLO Coronavirus Cluster

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Violent Conflict Exposure in Nigeria and Labor Supply of Farm Households. A new GLO Discussion Paper by John Chiwuzulum Odozi and GLO Fellow Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that exposure to violent conflict significantly reduces the total number of hours worked in Nigerian farm households.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 712, 2020

Violent Conflict Exposure in Nigeria and Labor Supply of Farm HouseholdsDownload PDF
by
Chiwuzulum Odozi, John & Oyelere, Ruth Uwaifo

GLO Fellow Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Author Abstract: Nigeria has experienced bouts of violent conflict in different regions over the last few decades leading to significant loss of life. In this paper, we explore the potential short and accumulated long term effects of such conflict on labor supply of agricultural households. Using a nationally representative panel dataset for Nigeria in combination with armed conflict data, we estimate the effect of violent conflict on a farm household members labor supply. Our findings suggest that exposure to violent conflict significantly reduces the total number of hours the farm household head works and also deceases total family labor supply for agricultural households.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Gulags, Crime, and Elite Violence: Origins and Consequences of the Russian Mafia. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Jakub Lonsky.

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the origins and consequences of the Russian mafia.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Jakub Lonsky

GLO Discussion Paper No. 711, 2020

Gulags, Crime, and Elite Violence: Origins and Consequences of the Russian MafiaDownload PDF

GLO Fellow Jakub Lonsky

Author Abstract: This paper studies the origins and consequences of the Russian mafia (vory-v-zakone). Using a unique web scraped dataset containing detailed biographies of more than 5,000 mafia leaders, I first show that the Russian mafia originated in the Soviet Gulag archipelago, and could be found near the gulags’ initial locations in mid-1990s Russia, some three decades after the camps were officially closed down. Then, using an instrumental variable approach that exploits the proximity of the Russian mafia to the gulags, I show that Russian communities with mafia presence in the mid-1990s experienced a dramatic rise in crime driven by elite violence which erupted shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The violence – initially confined to the criminal underworld – eventually spilled over, leading to indiscriminate attacks against local businessmen, managers of state-owned enterprises, judges, and members of the state security apparatus. However, there was no increase in politically-motivated violence, suggesting a widespread collusion between the mafia and local politicians in the early post-Soviet Russia.

Featured image: Photo-by-JR-Korpa-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Job Status, International Migration and Educational Choice. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Ilhom Abdulloev, Gil Epstein and Ira Gang.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that people who consider migrating abroad will have either lower years of schooling, or generally have not completed professional schools.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 709, 2020

Job Status, International Migration and Educational Choice Download PDF
by
Abdulloev, Ilhom & Epstein, Gil S. & Gang, Ira N.

GLO Fellows Ilhom Abdulloev, Gil Epstein & Ira Gang

Author Abstract: We consider how the possibility of international migration affects an individual’s educational choices in their home country. Without the opportunity to emigrate abroad people choose their educational investment (and hence their skill level) as we might expect, taking into account the utility they derive from the status their attainment bestows. A result of this paper is that if there are low chances of obtaining professional (requires tertiary schooling) jobs in the host country, individuals may well choose an educational track leading to a less-skilled lower status occupational profession in order to increase their chances of obtaining a job in the host country after migration. Thus, all home country students may choose the non-professional education track. Those who might have otherwise pursued higher, professional education may forgo that schooling. The theory developed here explains the forsaken schooling phenomenon, which shows that low-skilled and skilled home country workers are willing to accept low-skilled positions in host countries. This leads to the forgoing of professional schooling in the home country since it is not optimal for the worker in the home country to choose a high skilled education since, they will be overqualified in the host country. This will have a long run affect. As time goes on, therefore, people who consider migrating abroad will have either lower years of schooling, or generally have not completed professional schools (technical-vocational or tertiary).

Featured image: Photo-by-Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Finance, gender, and entrepreneurship: India’s informal sector firms. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Ira Gang and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds strong empirical evidence supporting the crucial role of financial access in promoting entrepreneurship among informal sector firms in India.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 708, 2020
Finance, gender, and entrepreneurship: India’s informal sector firms Download PDF
by
Gang, Ira N. & Natarajan, Rajesh Raj & Sen, Kunal

GLO Fellow Ira Gang

Author Abstract: How does informal economic activity respond to increased financial inclusion? Does it become more entrepreneurial? Does access to new financing options change the gender configuration of informal economic activity and, if so, in what ways and what directions? We take advantage of nationwide data collected in 2010/11 and 2015/16 by India’s National Sample Survey Office on unorganized (informal) enterprises. This period was one of rapid expansion of banking availability aimed particularly at the unbanked, under-banked, and women. We find strong empirical evidence supporting the crucial role of financial access in promoting entrepreneurship among informal sector firms in India. Our results are robust to alternative specifications and alternative measures of financial constraints using an approach combining propensity score matching and difference-in-differences. However, we do not find conclusive evidence that increased financial inclusion leads to a higher likelihood of women becoming entrepreneurs than men in the informal sector.

Featured image: Photo-by-Trevor-Cole-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Beyond the added-worker and the discouraged-worker effects: the entitled-worker effect. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román

A new GLO Discussion Paper identifies and analyses a new effect related to the cyclical behavior of labor supply: the Entitled-Worker Effect (EWE) and provides evidence for the effect in Spain.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 707, 2020

Beyond the added-worker and the discouraged-worker effects: the entitled-worker effect Download PDF
by
Martín-Román, Ángel L.

GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román

Author Abstract: This paper identifies and analyses a new effect related to the cyclical behavior of labor supply: the Entitled-Worker Effect (EWE). This effect is different from the well-known Added-Worker Effect (AWE) and Discouraged-Worker Effect (DWE). The EWE is a consequence of one of the most important labor institutions: the unemployment benefit (UB). We develop a model with uncertainty about the results of the job seeking and transactions costs linked to such a search process in which a kind of moral hazard appears. This creates new incentives for workers and produces an additional counter-cyclical pressure on aggregate labor supply, but with a different foundation from that of the AWE. Finally, we show some empirical evidence supporting the EWE for the Spanish case.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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What drives social returns to education? A meta-analysis. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Pedro Martins and Ying Cui.

A new GLO Discussion Paper documents that education can generate important externalities that contribute towards economic growth and convergence.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 706, 2020

What drives social returns to education? A meta-analysis Download PDF
by
Cui, Ying & Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Author Abstract: Education can generate important externalities that contribute towards economic growth and convergence. In this paper, we study the drivers of such externalities by conducting the first meta-analysis of the social returns to education literature. We analyse over 1,000 estimates from 31 articles published since 1993 that cover 15 countries. Our results indicate that: 1) spillovers slow down with economic development; 2) tertiary schooling and schooling dispersion increase spillovers; 3) spillovers are smaller under fixed-effects and IV estimators but larger when measured at the firm level; and 4) there is publication bias (but not citation bias).

Featured image: Photo-by-Mikael-Kristenson-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Unions, Worker Participation and Worker Well-Being. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow John S. Heywood and Benjamin Artz.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews the long-term evidence about the relationship between unions and job satisfaction.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 705, 2020

Unions, Worker Participation and Worker Well-Being Download PDF
by
Artz, Benjamin & Heywood, John S.

GLO Fellow John S. Heywood

Author Abstract: This chapter focuses on the lessons learned from four decades of studying the relationship between unions and job satisfaction. We discuss the original paradox that started the literature and trace the on-going debate over results that differ by sample and by estimation technique. We emphasize the cross-national evidence suggesting that the paradox of dissatisfied union members may be largely associated with Anglophone countries. Within Anglophone countries we explore exactly what is typically being measured and how unionization may influence both job characteristics and perceptions of given job characteristics. We explore differences in the influence of union membership on job satisfaction and on broader life satisfaction. We also review the literature on alternative forms of employee representation. We conclude by summarizing and suggesting avenues for future research.

Featured image: Photo-by-Jose-Antonio-Gallego-Vázquez-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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November 23, 2020 Vienna: “COVID-19” Virtual Workshop of the Academia Europaea (AE) Section “Economics, Business and Management Sciences” hosted by the Central European University (CEU).

Hosted by the Central European University (CEU) and its CEU School of Public Policy (Vienna/Austria), the AE Section “Economics, Business and Management Sciences” of the Academia Europaea (AE), the Academy of Europe, will hold a virtual Workshop on COVID-19 on November 23, 2020, 9 am to 5 pm, CET – Vienna time. The event is supported by the Global Labor Organization (GLO).

This is an internal meeting on special invitation only. If you wish to attend, please contact office@glabor.org.

Central European University (CEU), Vienna

November 23, 2020: “COVID-19” Virtual Workshop of the Academia Europaea (AE) Section “Economics, Business and Management Sciences”, all CET/Vienna.

PROGRAM

Ingy Kassem

Starting at 9.00 am; Informal get together, flexible entry….

Moderator of the event: Ingy Kassem (Central European University, Executive Assistant to the Head of the School of Public Policy)

NOTE: Ingy Kassem will announce the program parts. The session chairs will briefly announce the speakers. The speakers will upload their presentations and share screens. 20 minutes presentation. 10 minutes discussion. Ingy will help with communicating the questions. Breaks are for intense communication. You need to bring your food and drinks…. The meeting is internal on invitation only. It will be not recorded.

9.30 am; Klaus F. Zimmermann (MAE, UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University & GLO): Welcome of the Section Chair

9.35 – 9.50 am; Martin Kahanec (MAE,  Central European University, Acting Dean of CEU School of Public Policy): Welcome of the Host & and CEU Business

9.50 – 10.40 am; Graziella Bertocchi (MAE, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia):
COVID-19, Race, and Redlining
Chair: Andreu Mas-Colell (MAE, Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

10.40 – 10.50 am;”Water, Coffee, Tea, Cookies” (virtual, bring your selection)

10.50 – 11.40 am; Matthias Sutter (MAE, University of Cologne & Max-Planck Bonn):
Nudging or Paying? Evaluating the effectiveness of measures to contain COVID-19 in rural Bangladesh in a randomized controlled trial.
Chair: Reinhilde Veugelers (MAE, University of Leuven)

11.40 – 11.50 am; “Water, Coffee, Tea, Fruits” (virtual, bring your selection)

11.50am – 12.40 pm; Anil Duman (Guest, Central European University):
Wage Losses and Inequality in Developing Countries: labor market and distributional consequences of COVID-19 lockdowns in Turkey
Chair: Klaus F. Zimmermann (MAE, UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University & GLO)

12.40 – 13.50 pm; Lunch with 3 random “seat” allocations….  (virtual, bring your food and drinks)

13.50 – 14.40 pm; Peter Nijkamp (MAE, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam):
Corona Impacts on the Hospitality Market. A Space-time Economic Roller-Coaster Analysis
Chair: Martin Kahanec (MAE,  Central European University)

14.40 – 14.50 pm; “Water, Coffee, Tea, Cookies” (virtual, bring your selection)

14.50 – 15.40 pm; Luiz Moutinho (MAE, University of Suffolk):
Artificial Intelligence and Control of COVID-19
Chair: Mirjana Radovic-Markovic (MAE, Institute of Economic Sciences)

15.40 – 15.50 pm; “Conference picture – group photo”.

15.50 – 16.40 pm; Marcella Alsan (Guest, Harvard University):
Civil Liberties in Times of Crises
Chair: Amelie Constant (MAE, Princeton University)

16.40 – 16.50 pm; Final remarks: Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann
16.50 – 17.00 pm; “After the hour”: Section Committee only. Group photo.

The end.

The AE Section Committee.

Ends;

The Effect of the 2016 United States Presidential Election on Employment Discrimination. A new GLO Discussion Paper of GLO Fellows Marina Mileo Gorzig & Deborah Rho.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that employment discrimination increased after the 2016 presidential election in the United States.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 701, 2020

The Effect of the 2016 United States Presidential Election on Employment Discrimination Download PDF
by
Gorzig, Marina Mileo & Rho, Deborah

GLO Fellows Marina Mileo Gorzig & Deborah Rho

Author Abstract: We examine whether employment discrimination increased after the 2016 presidential election in the United States. We submitted fictitious applications to publicly advertised positions using resumes that are manipulated on perceived race and ethnicity (Somali American, African American, and white American). Prior to the 2016 election, employers contacted Somali American applicants slightly less than white applicants but more than African American applicants. After the election, the difference between white and Somali American applicants increased by 8 percentage points. The increased discrimination predominantly occurred in occupations involving interaction with customers. We continued data collection from July 2017 to March 2018 to test for seasonality in discrimination; there was no substantial increase in discrimination after the 2017 election.

Featured image: Photo-by-Wes-Hicks-on-Unsplash

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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