Category Archives: Discussion Paper

Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: A new GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that smartphone use reduces student success.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 438, 2019

Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: First Evidence from Longitudinal Data –  Download PDF
by
Amez, Simon & Vujić, Sunčica & De Marez, Lieven & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellows Suncica Vujic & Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: To study the causal impact of smartphone use on academic performance, we collected—for the first time worldwide—longitudinal data on students’ smartphone use and educational performance. For three consecutive years we surveyed all students attending classes in eleven different study programs at two Belgian universities on general smartphone use and other drivers of academic achievement. These survey data were merged with the exam scores of these students. We analyzed the resulting data by means of panel data random effects estimation controlling for unobserved individual characteristics. A one standard deviation increase in overall smartphone use results in a decrease of 0.349 points (out of 20) and a decrease of 2.616 percentage points in the fraction of exams passed.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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New GLO Discussion Paper explores the associations between temporary employment, loneliness at work and job satisfaction.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that employees with a temporary contract experience more loneliness at work as opposed to employees with a permanent contract. It also reveals that loneliness at work mediates the association between working temporarily and job satisfaction.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 437, 2019

Does loneliness lurk in temp work? Exploring the associations between temporary employment, loneliness at work and job satisfaction –  Download PDF
by
Moens, Eline & Baert, Stijn & Verhofstadt, Elsy & Van Ootegem, Luc

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: This research contributes to the limited literature concerning the determinants of loneliness at work, as well as to the literature on psychological outcomes associated with temporary work. More specifically, we are adding to the literature by exploring whether there is an association between working temporarily and loneliness at work and whether loneliness at work partly explains the association between working temporarily and job satisfaction. To this end, we analyze—by means of a mediation model—a unique sample of Flemish employees in the private sector. We find that employees with a temporary contract experience more loneliness at work as opposed to employees with a permanent contract. In addition, we discover that loneliness at work mediates the association between working temporarily and job satisfaction.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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New GLO Discussion Paper: Labor Market Outcomes for Cancer Survivors

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the return rate to the labor market is between 50% and two thirds whereas survivors are experiencing lower work abilities and discrimination.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 436, 2019

Labour Market Outcomes for Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Reviews –  Download PDF
by
Sharipova, Adelina & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Objectives: To synthesise the existing reviews conducted on the labour market outcomes of cancer survivors by focusing on (i) the convergences and divergences on the overall work-related outcomes, (ii) the moderating factors studied to date, and (iii) an identification of areas where more research is needed in the future. Methods: A systematic review of the existing reviews on labour market outcomes for cancer survivors was performed. Bibliographic search for eligible studies published before January 2019 involved the following three core concepts: (i) cancer survivors, (ii) work, and (iii) review. The quality of the included reviews was assessed based on the Johns Hopkins Hospital Evidence Level and Quality Guide. Following this, a narrative synthesis of the findings was completed. Results: In total, 35 articles met the inclusion criteria. The average return to work (RTW) rate varied between 54% and 66%. The self-reported work ability was consistently lower following cancer. This review also found strong converging evidence of self-reported discrimination after cancer. The effects on work performance showed several inconsistencies, possibly due to the use of different definitions of work performance. Most moderating factors for successful work outcomes showed converging evidence, except for age, marital status, cancer type, and country. We provide several possible explanations and linkages for these divergencies. Conclusions: Further investigation of causal relationships by (i) using matched control groups and by (ii) gathering longitudinal data, and the use of more standardised definitions of the outcome variables are the two main future research recommendations. Furthermore, no studies have succeeded in measuring the work outcomes objectively. We provide specific recommendations from an interdisciplinary context to solve this.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Same-sex marriage legalization and interstate migration in the United States. Insights from a new GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that same-sex marriage legalization permanently increased the migration flow of homosexuals moving to more tolerant states in the United States.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 435, 2019

The effect of same-sex marriage legalization on interstate migration in the United States –  Download PDF
by
Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina

GLO Fellow Miriam Marcén

Author Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of marriage regulation on the migratory behavior of individuals using the history of the liberalization of same-sex marriage across the United States. Because the approval of same-sex marriage allows homosexuals access to legal rights and social benefits, marriage becomes more attractive relative to singlehood or other forms of partnership. The differences in the value of other forms of relationship status relative to marriage can affect the migration decisions of individuals, to the extent that those states approving same-sex marriage can be considered less discriminatory. Results show that that legal reform permanently increased the migration flow of homosexuals moving to tolerant states (i.e., those that have legalized same-sex marriage). The physical distance among states does not appear to be driving our estimates since the migration flow of homosexuals is not limited to border or close states. Supplemental analysis, developed to explore whether the migration flow is translated to a significant effect to the stock of homosexuals by state, suggests that that stock increased after the approval of same-sex marriage but that it was transitory, pointing to a ‘no effect’ on the spatial distribution of homosexuals as times went by. The liberalization of marriage for homosexuals also has an effect on the migration behavior of those individuals originating from countries in which same-sex sexual activity is illegal, for whom we observe an outflow migration from those states with same sex marriage, pointing to dissimilarities in cultural aspects related to homosexuality as important factors in migration decisions.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Age discrimination: What recruiters have in mind when hiring. New GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that older age signals to recruiters that applicants have lower technological skill, flexibility, and trainability levels. The relevance of these factors decline with higher levels of older workers in the company.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 434, 2019

What Does a Job Candidate’s Age Signal to Employers? –  Download PDF
by
Van Borm, Hannah & Burn, Ian & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Research has shown that hiring discrimination is a barrier for older job candidates in many OECD countries. However, little research has delved into why older job candidates are discriminated against. Therefore, we have conducted an online scenario experiment involving recruiters to empirically investigate 15 potential stigma related to older age drawn from a systematic review of the literature. We found that older age particularly signals to recruiters that the applicant has lower technological skill, flexibility, and trainability levels. Together, these perceptions explain about 41% of the effect of age on the probability of being invited to a job interview. In addition, we found that the negative association between age and invitation probability is smaller when recruiters work for firms with a higher percentage of older employees.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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AI and Robotics Innovation: Findings from a new GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals a tremendous increase in AI patenting activities since 2013 with a significant boom in 2015-2016. While most of AI patenting activities remain concentrated in the sectors of software programing and manufacturing of electronic equipment and machinery, there are clear signs of cross-fertilization towards non-tech sectors.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 433, 2019

AI and Robotics Innovation: a Sectoral and Geographical Mapping using Patent Data –  Download PDF
by
Van Roy, Vincent & Vertesy, Daniel & Damioli, Giacomo

GLO Fellows Vincent Van Roy, Daniel Vertesy & Giacomo Damioli

Author Abstract: Economic activities based on the invention, production and distribution of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have recently emerged worldwide. Yet, little is known about the innovative activities, location and growth performance of AI innovators. This chapter aims to map and analyse the global innovative landscape of AI by exploring 155,000 patents identified as AI-related by means of text-mining techniques. It highlights the emergence and evolution of AI technologies and identifies AI hotspots across the world. It explores the scale and pervasiveness of AI activities across sectors, and evaluates the economic performance of AI innovators using firm accounting information. Finally, it assesses recent trends in venture capital investments towards AI as financial support to promising AI startups. Findings of this chapter reveal a tremendous increase in AI patenting activities since 2013 with a significant boom in 2015-2016. While most of AI patenting activities remain concentrated in the sectors of software programming and manufacturing of electronic equipment and machinery, there are clear signs of cross-fertilisation towards non-tech sectors. The market of AI patenting firms is very vibrant and characterised by a large increase of new and small players with economic performances above industry average. This trend is also reflected by the recent increase in venture capital towards AI startups.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Have corrupt societies deleterious effects on health? New GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that bribing for public services worsens self-assessed health using individual-level data from 28 post-communist countries.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 432, 2019

Can bribery buy health? Evidence from post-communist countries –  Download PDF
by
Mavisakalyan, Astghik & Otrachshenko, Vladimir & Popova, Olga

GLO Fellows Astghik Mavisakalyan & Olga Popova

Author Abstract: Corruption is pervasive, but we know little about its effects on individual lives. This paper examines whether living in a corrupt society has deleterious effects on health. Using individual-level data from 28 post-communist countries, we demonstrate that bribing for public services worsens self-assessed health. Unlike other studies, we account for endogeneity of bribery and show that bribing for any type of public service, not just for health services, has an adverse impact. We also find that bribery lowers the quality of services received. Moreover, there are potentially high indirect costs of bribery since, as we show, it comes at the expense of cutting food consumption. These findings suggest that corruption is a potentially important source behind the poor health outcomes in many developing countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Female Entrepreneurs in Africa: New GLO Discussion Paper studies the sources of success of startups

A new GLO Discussion Paper analyzes the role of networks in the access of female entrepreneurs to start-up capital and firm performance in Eswatini, a country with one of the highest female unemployment rates in Africa. Women who receive support from professional networks have higher initial capital.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 431, 2019

Networks, Start-up Capital and Women’s Entrepreneurial Performance in Africa: Evidence from Eswatini –  Download PDF
by
Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry

GLO Fellow Zuzana Brixiová

Author Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of networks in the access of female entrepreneurs to start-up capital and firm performance in Eswatini, a country with one of the highest female unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first shows that higher initial capital is associated with better sales performance for both men and women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs start their firms with smaller start-up capital than men and are more likely to fund it from their own sources, which reduces the size of their firm and sales level. However, women with higher education start their firms with more capital than their less educated counterparts. Moreover, women who receive support from professional networks have higher initial capital, while those trained in financial literacy more often access external funding sources, including through their networks.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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GLO Discussion Paper of the Month December 2019: Smartphone Use and Academic Performance

The GLO Discussion Paper of the Month of December uses longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between smartphone use and academic performance in universities. It suggests that smartphone use has a causal negative effect on academic performance. The paper makes a significant contribution to current policy debates around the world, on whether smartphones should be banned from schools. 

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

GLO Discussion Paper of the Month: December

GLO Discussion Paper No.  438, 2019

Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: First Evidence from Longitudinal Data –  Download PDF
by Amez, Simon & Vujić, Sunčica & De Marez, Lieven & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellows Stijn Baert & Sunčica Vujić

Author Abstract:  To study the causal impact of smartphone use on academic performance, we collected—for the first time worldwide—longitudinal data on students’ smartphone use and educational performance. For three consecutive years we surveyed all students attending classes in eleven different study programs at two Belgian universities on general smartphone use and other drivers of academic achievement. These survey data were merged with the exam scores of these students. We analyzed the resulting data by means of panel data random effects estimation controlling for unobserved individual characteristics. A one standard deviation increase in overall smartphone use results in a decrease of 0.349 points (out of 20) and a decrease of 2.616 percentage points in the fraction of exams passed.

GLO Discussion Papers of December 2019

438 Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: First Evidence from Longitudinal Data –  Download PDF
by 
Amez, Simon & Vujić, Sunčica & De Marez, Lieven & Baert, Stijn

437 Does loneliness lurk in temp work? Exploring the associations between temporary employment, loneliness at work and job satisfaction –  Download PDF
by 
Moens, Eline & Baert, Stijn & Verhofstadt, Elsy & Van Ootegem, Luc

436 Labour Market Outcomes for Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Reviews –  Download PDF
by 
Sharipova, Adelina & Baert, Stijn

435 The effect of same-sex marriage legalization on interstate migration in the United States –  Download PDF
by 
Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina

434 What Does a Job Candidate’s Age Signal to Employers?  –  Download PDF
by 
Van Borm, Hannah & Burn, Ian & Baert, Stijn

433 AI and Robotics Innovation: a Sectoral and Geographical Mapping using Patent Data –  Download PDF
by 
Van Roy, Vincent & Vertesy, Daniel & Damioli, Giacomo

432 Can bribery buy health? Evidence from post-communist countries  –  Download PDF
by 
Mavisakalyan, Astghik & Otrachshenko, Vladimir & Popova, Olga

431 Networks, Start-up Capital and Women’s Entrepreneurial Performance in Africa: Evidence from Eswatini –  Download PDF
by 
Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry

430 An exploratory study of populism: the municipality-level predictors of electoral outcomes in Italy  –  Download PDF
by 
Levi, Eugenio & Patriarca, Fabrizio

429 Estimating Poverty for Refugee Populations: Can Cross-Survey Imputation Methods Substitute for Data Scarcity? –  Download PDF
by 
Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Verme, Paolo

428 The Microeconomic Impacts of Employee Representatives: Evidence from Membership Thresholds –  Download PDF
by 
Martins, Pedro S.

427 Trade in Information Technologies and Changes in the Demand for Occupations –  Download PDF
by 
Jerbashian, Vahagn

426 The Mental Health Effects of Retirement –  Download PDF
by 
Picchio, Matteo & van Ours, Jan C.

425 The Impact of Internship Experience During Secondary Education on Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes –  Download PDF
by 
Neyt, Brecht & Verhaest, Dieter & Baert, Stijn

424 Training, Human Capital, and Gender Gaps in Entrepreneurial Performance –  Download PDF
by 
Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry

GLO DP Team
Senior Editors: Matloob Piracha (University of Kent) & GLO; Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University and Bonn University).
Managing Editor: Magdalena Ulceluse, University of GroningenDP@glabor.org  

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GLO Discussion Paper of the Month November 2019: Former Communist Party Membership and Entrepreneurial Activities

The GLO Discussion Paper of the Month of November 2019 explores the implications of post-communist party membership on the ethics and the nature of doing business in transition economies. It is found that former communist party members often become successful entrepreneurs. The Discussion Paper is the first study separating the causal effect of former communist party membership from self-selection.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

GLO Discussion Paper of the Month: November

GLO Discussion Paper No.  423, 2019

Former Communist party membership and present-day entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern Europe –  Download PDF
by Ivlevs, Artjoms & Nikolova, Milena & Popova, Olga

GLO Fellows Milena Nikolova & Olga Popova

Author Abstract:  After the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, former party members were particularly likely to start businesses and become entrepreneurs. However, it remains unclear whether this entrepreneurial activity was driven by the resources, information and opportunities provided by former party membership or because people with specific individual attributes were more likely to become party members (self-selection). This study is the first to separate the causal effect of former Communist party membership from self-selection. Using individual-level Life in Transition–III survey and instrumental variables analysis, we find that, in Central and Eastern European countries, membership of former Communist party has facilitated business set-up but not business longevity. Our results also suggest evidence of negative self-selection, meaning that people who joined the former ruling party tended have fewer of the traits associated with entrepreneurship such as motivation, risk tolerance, and entrepreneurial spirit. We show that former Communist party membership still matters for business practices, business ethics, and the nature of doing business in transition economies.

GLO Discussion Papers of November 2019

426 The Mental Health Effects of Retirement –  Download PDF
by 
Picchio, Matteo & van Ours, Jan C.

425 The Impact of Internship Experience During Secondary Education on Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes –  Download PDF
by 
Neyt, Brecht & Verhaest, Dieter & Baert, Stijn

424 Training, Human Capital, and Gender Gaps in Entrepreneurial Performance –  Download PDF
by 
Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry

423 Former Communist party membership and present-day entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern Europe –  Download PDF
by 
Ivlevs, Artjoms & Nikolova, Milena & Popova, Olga

422 Job Prestige and Mobile Dating Success: A Field Experiment  –  Download PDF
by 
Neyt, Brecht & Baert, Stijn & Vynckier, Jana

421 Greater US Gun Ownership, Lethality and Murder Rates: Analysis and Policy Proposals  –  Download PDF
by  
Schiff, Maurice

GLO DP Team
Senior Editors: Matloob Piracha (University of Kent) & GLO; Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University and Bonn University).
Managing Editor: Magdalena Ulceluse, University of GroningenDP@glabor.org  

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Populism in Italy: New GLO Discussion Paper Explores the Role of the Left/Right Divide

A new GLO Discussion Paper is providing evidence that heterogeneity in populism does not follow a left/right divide.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 430, 2019

An exploratory study of populism: the municipality-level predictors of electoral outcomes in Italy –  Download PDF
by
Levi, Eugenio & Patriarca, Fabrizio

GLO Fellows Eugenio Levi & Fabrizio Patriarca

Author Abstract: We present an exploratory machine learning analysis of populist votes at municipality level in the 2018 Italian general elections, in which populist parties gained almost 50% of the votes. Starting from a comprehensive set of local characteristics, we use an algorithm based on BIC to obtain a reduced set of predictors for each of the two populist parties (Five-Star Movement and Lega) and the two traditional ones (Democratic Party and Forza Italia). Differences and similarities between the sets of predictors further provide evidence on 1) heterogeneity in populisms, 2) if this heterogeneity is related to the traditional left/right divide. The Five-Star Movement is stronger in larger and unsafer municipalities, where people are younger, more unemployed and work more in services. On the contrary, Lega thrives in smaller and safer municipalities, where people are less educated and employed more in manufacturing and commerce. These differences do not correspond to differences between the Democratic Party and Forza Italia, providing evidence that heterogeneity in populism does not correspond to a left/right divide. As robustness tests, we use an alternative machine learning technique (lasso) and apply our predictions to France as to confront them with candidates’ actual votes in 2017 presidential elections.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Estimating Poverty for Refugee Populations: New GLO Discussion Paper Suggests Survey Imputation Methods

A new GLO Discussion Paper firstly measures poverty among refugees.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 429, 2019

Estimating Poverty for Refugee Populations: Can Cross-Survey Imputation Methods Substitute for Data Scarcity? –  Download PDF
by
Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Verme, Paolo

GLO Fellows Hai-Anh Dang and Paolo Verme

Author Abstract: The increasing growth of forced displacement worldwide has led to the stronger interest of various stakeholders in measuring poverty among refugee populations. However, refugee data remain scarce, particularly in relation to the measurement of income, consumption, or expenditure. This paper offers a first attempt to measure poverty among refugees using cross-survey imputations and administrative and survey data collected by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Jordan. Employing a small number of predictors currently available in the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees registration system, the proposed methodology offers out-of-sample predicted poverty rates. These estimates are not statistically different from the actual poverty rates. The estimates are robust to different poverty lines, they are more accurate than those based on asset indexes or proxy means tests, and they perform well according to targeting indicators. They can also be obtained with relatively small samples. Despite these preliminary encouraging results, it is essential to replicate this experiment across countries using different data sets and welfare aggregates before validating the proposed method.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Employee Voice and Firm Performance: New GLO Discussion Paper on Evidence from Portugal

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that in Portugal employee representatives foster firm performance through increased training of workers.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 428, 2019

The Microeconomic Impacts of Employee Representatives: Evidence from Membership Thresholds –  Download PDF
by
Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro S. Martins

Author Abstract: Employee representatives in firms are a potentially key but not yet studied source of the impact of unions and works councils. Their actions can shape multiple drivers of firm performance, including collective bargaining, strikes, and training. This paper examines the impact of union rep mandates by exploiting legal membership thresholds present in many countries. In the case of Portugal, which we examine here, while firms employing up to 49 union members are required to have one union rep, this increases to two (three) union reps for firms with 50 to 99 (100-199) union members. Drawing on matched employer- employee data on the unionized sector and regression discontinuity methods, we find that a one percentage point increase in the legal union rep/members ratio leads to an increase in firm performance of at least 7%. This result generally holds across multiple dimensions of firm performance and appears to be driven by increased training. However, we find no effects of union reps on firm-level wages, given the predominance of sectoral collective bargaining.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Impact of IT Trade on the Demand for Occupations: New GLO Discussion Paper about the role of China

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that the China-driven fall in IT prices has increased the demand for high wage occupations and reduced the demand for low wage occupations.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 427, 2019

Trade in Information Technologies and Changes in the Demand for Occupations –  Download PDF
by
Jerbashian, Vahagn

GLO Fellow Vahagn Jerbashian

Author Abstract: I use data from the World Input-Output Database and show that trade in information technologies (IT) has a significant contribution to the growth in foreign intermediate goods in 2001-2014 period. China has become one of the major foreign suppliers of IT and has strongly contributed to the rise in trade in IT. The growth in IT imports from China is associated with lower IT prices in sample European countries. The fall in IT prices has increased the demand for high wage occupations and reduced the demand for low wage occupations. From 20 to 95 percent of the variation in the demand for occupations stemming from the fall in IT prices can be attributed to the trade with China.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Mental Health Effects of Retirement Studied by a New GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for The Netherlands that retirement of partnered men positively affects mental health of both themselves and their partners, while single men experience a drop in mental health.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 426, 2019

The Mental Health Effects of Retirement –  Download PDF
by
Picchio, Matteo & van Ours, Jan C.

GLO Fellows Matteo Picchio & Jan van Ours

Author Abstract: We study the retirement effects on mental health using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design based on the eligibility age to the state pension in the Netherlands. We find that the mental effects are heterogeneous by gender and marital status. Retirement of partnered men positively affects mental health of both themselves and their partners. Single men retiring experience a drop in mental health. Female retirement has hardly any effect on their own mental health or the mental health of their partners. Part of the effects seem to be driven by loneliness after retirement.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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“Internship experience improves labor market outcomes” suggests a new GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds in line with the literature on vocational education programs that internship experience has a positive effect on labor market outcomes.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 425, 2019

The Impact of Internship Experience During Secondary Education on Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes –  Download PDF
by
Neyt, Brecht & Verhaest, Dieter & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellows Dieter Verhaest & Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: The literature on workplace learning in secondary education has mainly focused on vocational education programs. In this study, we examine the impact of internship experience in secondary education on a student’s schooling and early labor market outcomes, by analyzing unique, longitudinal data from Belgium. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, we model sequential outcomes by means of a dynamic discrete choice model. In line with the literature on vocational education programs, we find that internship experience has a positive effect on labor market outcomes that diminishes over time, although within the time window of our study, we find no evidence for a null or negative effect over time.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Training, Human Capital, and Gender Gaps in Entrepreneurial Performance: New GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies female entrepreneurship as a possible growth driver. It finds that tertiary education makes entrepreneurial training of females effective. 

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 424, 2019

Training, Human Capital, and Gender Gaps in Entrepreneurial Performance –  Download PDF
by
Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry

GLO Fellow Zuzana Brixiová

Author Abstract: In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, policymakers have been increasingly striving to support female entrepreneurship as a possible growth driver. This paper contributes to reconciling mixed findings in the literature on the effectiveness of entrepreneurial training with an analysis that links training and human capital, including tertiary education and non-cognitive skills, with gender gaps in entrepreneurial performance in Africa. We have found that while financial literacy training directly benefits men, it does not raise the sales level of women entrepreneurs. Instead, tertiary education has a direct positive link with the performance of women. Consistent with our theoretical model where different skills are complements, tertiary education can act as a channel that makes training effective. Regarding non-cognitive skills, evidence shows that women entrepreneurs who are tenacious achieve stronger sales performance. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating tertiary education and entrepreneurial training programs focused on a balanced set of skills, including non-cognitive skills, among policies for women entrepreneurs.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Why are former communist party members often successful entrepreneurs? New GLO Discussion Paper.

Former communist party members often become successful entrepreneurs. A new GLO Discussion Paper is the first study to separate the causal effect of former Communist party membership from self-selection.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 423, 2019

Former Communist party membership and present-day entrepreneurship in Central and Eastern Europe –  Download PDF
by
Ivlevs, Artjoms & Nikolova, Milena & Popova, Olga

GLO Fellows Milena Nikolova & Olga Popova

Author Abstract: After the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe, former party members were particularly likely to start businesses and become entrepreneurs. However, it remains unclear whether this entrepreneurial activity was driven by the resources, information and opportunities provided by former party membership or because people with specific individual attributes were more likely to become party members (self-selection). This study is the first to separate the causal effect of former Communist party membership from self-selection. Using individual-level Life in Transition–III survey and instrumental variables analysis, we find that, in Central and Eastern European countries, membership of former Communist party has facilitated business set-up but not business longevity. Our results also suggest evidence of negative self-selection, meaning that people who joined the former ruling party tended have fewer of the traits associated with entrepreneurship such as motivation, risk tolerance, and entrepreneurial spirit. We show that former Communist party membership still matters for business practices, business ethics, and the nature of doing business in transition economies.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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How Important is Job Prestige for Mobile Dating Success? New Research Findings

In traditional couple formation males seem to attach more value to attractiveness and women seem to focus on earnings potentials. A new GLO Discussion Paper finds in an online dating field experiment that job status or job prestige does not play a role for initial contact interest for both sexes.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 422, 2019

Job Prestige and Mobile Dating Success: A Field Experiment –  Download PDF
by
Neyt, Brecht & Baert, Stijn & Vynckier, Jana

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: Research exploiting data on classic (offline) couple formation has confirmed predictions from evolutionary psychology in a sense that males attach more value to attractiveness and women attach more value to earnings potential. We examine whether these human partner preferences survive in a context of fewer search and social frictions. We do this by means of a field experiment on the mobile dating app Tinder, which takes a central place in contemporary couple formation. Thirty-two fictitious Tinder profiles that randomly differ in job status and job prestige are evaluated by 4,800 other, real users. We find that both males and females do not use job status or job prestige as a determinant of whom to show initial interest in on Tinder. However, we do see evidence that, after this initial phase, males less frequently begin a conversation with females when those females are unemployed but also then do not care about the particular job prestige of employed females.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Greater US Gun Ownership, Lethality and Murder Rates: A New GLO Discussion Paper with Analysis and Policy Proposals

A new GLO Discussion Paper discusses the US gun-related murder rate and places it in an international perspective, where the US rate is 27 times the average rate for 22 other developed countries; and the gun ownership rate is over five times higher so that the murder rate per gun is 5 times higher.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 421, 2019

Greater US Gun Ownership, Lethality and Murder Rates: Analysis and Policy Proposals –  Download PDF
by 
Schiff, Maurice

GLO Fellow Maurice Schiff

Author Abstract: This paper examines the US gun-related murder (GM) rate and places it in an international perspective. The data show that the US GM rate is 27 times the average rate for 22 other developed countries (ODC). Its gun ownership rate is 5.4 times that of ODC and the murder rate per gun is 5 times that of ODC. Thus, as is done in the paper, an effective reduction of the US GM rate requires an analysis of both the high gun ownership rate and the high murder rate per gun. The paper examines about fifteen gun-policy reforms – including their impact, cost, structure for maximum benefit – and other reforms affecting the GM rate. It also looks at the GM impact of immigration and of programs that provide alternative life pursuits for young men at risk. It further presents a number of policy implications and some new proposals designed to reduce the GM rate. Four appendices provide 1) results from two recent opinion polls on gun-policy reforms, 2) a detailed analysis of the relationship between gun ownership and the GM rate, 3) calculations of gun buyback costs, and 4) a correction of existing results on the Brady Bill’s impact on gun ownership.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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GLO Discussion Paper of the Month October: Bargaining Agreement Extensions May Cause Unemployment and Firm Closures

The GLO Discussion Paper of the Month of October investigates the economic effects of sector-wide bargaining agreements in Portugal, finding that extensions may contribute to unemployment and firm closure.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

GLO Discussion Paper of the Month: October

GLO Discussion Paper No.  413, 2019

30,000 minimum wages: The economic effects of collective bargaining extensions –  Download PDF
by 
Martins, Pedro S. 

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Author Abstract:  Many governments extend the coverage of collective agreements to workers and employers that were not involved in their bargaining. These extensions may address coordination issues but may also distort competition by imposing sector-specific minimum wages and other work conditions that are not suitable for some firms and workers. In this paper, we analyse the impact of such extensions along several economic margins. Drawing on worker- and firm-level monthly data for Portugal, a country where extensions have been widespread, and the scattered timing of the extensions, we find that, while continuing workers experience wage increases following an extension, formal employment and wage bills in the relevant sectors fall, on average, by 2%. These results increase by about 25% across small firms and are driven by reduced hirings. In contrast, the employment and wage bills of independent contractors, who are not subject to labour law or collective bargaining, increases by over 1% following an extension.

GLO Discussion Papers of October 2019

420 Quantity and quality of work in the platform economy –  Download PDF
by  
Bogliacino, Francesco & Codagnone, Cristiano & Cirillo, Valeria & Guarascio, Dario

419 Social Contacts, Dutch Language Proficiency and Immigrant Economic Performance in the Netherlands –  Download PDF
by  
Chiswick, Barry R. & Wang, Zhiling

418 Anatomy of the Italian occupational structure: concentrated power and distributed knowledge –  Download PDF
by 
Cetrulo, A. & Guarascio, D. & Virgillito, M. E.

417 Workplace Positive Actions, Trans People’s Self-Esteem and Human Resources’ Evaluations –  Download PDF
by 
Bozani, Vasiliki & Drydakis, Nick & Sidiropoulou, Katerina & Harvey, Benjamin & Paraskevopoulou, Anna

416 Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: a Literature Review –  Download PDF
by 
Amez, Simon & Baert, Stijn

415 Gender Gaps in Education –  Download PDF
by 
Bertocchi, Graziella & Bozzano, Monica

414 Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction –  Download PDF
by 
Drydakis, Nick

413 30,000 minimum wages: The economic effects of collective bargaining extensions –  Download PDF
by 
Martins, Pedro S.

412 Does Increased Teacher Accountability Decrease Leniency in Grading? –  Download PDF
by 
Puhani, Patrick A. & Yang, Philip

411 Return, Circular, and Onward Migration Decisions in a Knowledge Society –  Download PDF
by 
Constant, Amelie F.

410 Gender Identity Minorities and workplace legislation in Europe –  Download PDF
by 
Sidiropoulou, Katerina

409 Intergenerational Income Mobility and Income Taxation –  Download PDF
by 
Kurnaz, Musab & Soytas, Mehmet A

GLO DP Team
Senior Editors: Matloob Piracha (University of Kent) & GLO; Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University and Bonn University).
Managing Editor: Magdalena Ulceluse, University of GroningenDP@glabor.org  

Quantity and Quality of Work in the Platform Economy: A New GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews this timely issue for the digital labor markets where labor-intensive services are traded by matching requestors (employers and/or consumers) and providers (workers).

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 420, 2019

Quantity and quality of work in the platform economy –  Download PDF
by 
Bogliacino, Francesco & Codagnone, Cristiano & Cirillo, Valeria & Guarascio, Dario

GLO Fellows Francesco Bogliacino & Dario Guarascio

Author Abstract: This critical and scoping review essay analyses digital labour markets where labour-intensive services are traded by matching requesters (employers and/or consumers) and providers (workers). It first discusses to what extent labour platform can be treated as two-sided or multi-sided markets, and the implications of these classifications. It then moves to address the legal and regulatory issues implied by these technologies. From a theoretical point of view, using a framework where innovation is not neutral in the labour market, platforms have implications for the quantity of jobs, for the kind of skills and tasks which are exchanged, and in terms of bargaining power of the contracting parties. It includes a critical evaluation of the empirical evidence from a variety of sources.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Social Contacts, Dutch Language Proficiency and Immigrant Economic Performance in the Netherlands: New GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals that in the Netherlands good social contacts and a good mastery of the native language enhance immigrants’ economic performance.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 419, 2019

Social Contacts, Dutch Language Proficiency and Immigrant Economic Performance in the Netherlands –  Download PDF
by 
Chiswick, Barry R. & Wang, Zhiling

GLO Fellows Barry Chiswick & Zhiling Wang

Author Abstract: Using longitudinal data on immigrants in the Netherlands from the survey ‘Social Position and Use of Public Facilities by Immigrants’ (SPVA) for the years 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002, we examined the impacts of social contacts and Dutch language proficiency on adult foreign-born men’s earnings, employment and occupational status. On average, social contacts and a good mastery of the Dutch language enhance immigrants’ economic performances. The effects are much stronger for immigrants with low-skill-transferability than for immigrants with high-skill-transferability, are stronger for economic migrants than for non-economic migrants, and are stronger for white-collar workers than for blue-collar workers. Contact with Dutch people and Dutch organisations unambiguously enhances all aspects of immigrants’ economic performance, however, no evidence is found for a positive effect of co-ethnic contact on employment status. To deal with the endogeneity between Dutch language ability and earnings, an interaction term between age at migration and a dichotomous variable for a non-Dutch-speaking origin is used as the identifying instrument. The selectivity issue of survey respondents was tackled as well to validate the main findings. The study has a strong policy implication for integration policies in the Netherlands, or more broadly in the immigrant receiving countries.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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The work Italians perform: New GLO Discussion Paper provides the anatomy of the Italian occupational structure

A new GLO Discussion Paper demonstrates that the Italian occupational structure is strongly hierarchical, with the locus of power distinct by the locus of knowledge generation.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 418, 2019

Anatomy of the Italian occupational structure: concentrated power and distributed knowledge –  Download PDF
by
Cetrulo, A. & Guarascio, D. & Virgillito, M. E.

GLO Fellows Dario Guarascio & Maria Enrica Virgillito

Author Abstract: Which type of work do Italians perform? In this contribution we aim at detecting the anatomy of the Italian occupational structure by taking stock of a micro-level dataset registering the task content, the execution of procedures, the knowledge embedded in the work itself, called ICP (Indagine Campionaria sulle Professioni), the latter being comparable to the U.S. O*NET dataset. We perform an extensive empirical investigation moving from the micro to the macro level of aggregation. Our results show that the Italian occupational structure is strongly hierarchical, with the locus of power distinct by the locus of knowledge generation. It is also weak in terms of collaborative and worker involvement practices, and possibility to be creative. Our analysis allows to pinpoint the role exerted by hierarchical structures, decision making autonomy, and knowledge as the most relevant attributes characterizing the division of labour.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Workplace Positive Actions, Trans People’s Self-Esteem and Human Resources’ Evaluations: results provided in a new GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper surveys evidence in the literature that trans people’s self-esteem and self-respect can be enhanced by policy makers’ positive actions to promote inclusivity at the workplace.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 417, 2019

Workplace Positive Actions, Trans People’s Self-Esteem and Human Resources’ Evaluations –  Download PDF
by
Bozani, Vasiliki & Drydakis, Nick & Sidiropoulou, Katerina & Harvey, Benjamin & Paraskevopoulou, Anna

GLO Fellows Nick Drydakis, Katerina Sidiropoulou and Anna Paraskevopoulou

Author Abstract: This study provides empirical patterns regarding trans people’s self-esteem-oriented reflections during observations of positive workplace actions. The case of a 2015 UK workplace guide is utilized to fulfill our aims. We adopt Rawls’ political philosophy framework in order to evaluate whether trans people’s self-esteem-oriented concepts might be enhanced by policy makers’ positive actions. The study does find that trans people’s self-esteem and self-respect are enhanced by policy makers’ positive actions to promote inclusivity in the workplace. Due to these actions trans people feel more accepted, valued and trusted by the government. We suggest that if a workplace policy is perceived to be recognizing trans people’s worth this may be internalized, resulting in positive self-evaluations by trans people. In addition, we present empirical patterns from HR departments which have been aware of the workplace guide. HR officers suggest that the workplace guide informs their strategies, and positively affects the creation of a more inclusive workplace culture, the corporate profiles of their firms and staff organizational behaviours (such as, achieving results, fostering collegiality, reducing complaints) and addresses LGBT business and trans staff-members’ needs. We suggest that if employers adopt policy makers’ positive workplace policies aiming to increase inclusivity, they may be able to realize positive organizational outcomes in their firms.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Does smartphone use reduce the academic success of students? Evidence reviewed in a new GLO Discussion Paper.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals a predominance of empirical results in the academic literature supporting a negative association between students’ frequency of smartphone use and their academic success.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 416, 2019

Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: a Literature Review –  Download PDF
by
Amez, Simon & Baert, Stijn

GLO Fellow Stijn Baert

Author Abstract: We present the first systematic review of the scientific literature on smartphone use and academic success. We synthesise the theoretical mechanisms, empirical approaches, and empirical findings described in the multidisciplinary literature to date. Our analysis of the literature reveals a predominance of empirical results supporting a negative association between students’ frequency of smartphone use and their academic success. However, the strength of this association is heterogeneous by (a) the method of data gathering, (b) the measures of academic performance used in the analysis, and (c) the measures of smartphone use adopted. The main limitation identified in the literature is that the reported associations cannot be given a causal interpretation. Based on the reviewed findings and limitations, directions for further research are discussed.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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Gender Gaps in Education: New GLO Discussion Paper

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews the growing body of research in economics which concentrates on the education gender gap and its evolution, over time and across countries.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 415, 2019

Gender Gaps in Education –  Download PDF
by
Bertocchi, Graziella & Bozzano, Monica

GLO Fellow Graziella Bertocchi

Author Abstract: This paper reviews the growing body of research in economics which concentrates on the education gender gap and its evolution, over time and across countries. The survey first focuses on gender differentials in the historical period that roughly goes from 1850 to the 1940s and documents the deep determinants of the early phase of female education expansion, including pre-industrial conditions, religion, and family and kinship patterns. Next, the survey describes the stylized facts of contemporaneous gender gaps in education, from the 1950s to the present day, accounting for several alternative measures of attainment and achievement and for geographic and temporal differentiations. The determinants of the gaps are then summarized, while keeping a strong emphasis on an historical perspective and disentangling factors related to the labor market, family formation, psychological elements, and societal cultural norms. A discussion follows of the implications of the education gender gap for multiple realms, from economic growth to family life, taking into account the potential for reverse causation. Special attention is devoted to the persistency of gender gaps in the STEM and economics fields.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 21, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on: Trans People: Transitioning, Mental Health, and Life and Job Satisfaction

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews challenges and perspectives of work policies affecting the well-being of trans people.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 414, 2019

Trans People, Transitioning, Mental Health, Life and Job Satisfaction –  Download PDF
by
Drydakis, Nick

GLO Fellow Nick Drydakis

Author Abstract: For trans people (i.e. people whose gender is not the same as the sex they were assigned at birth) evidence suggests that transitioning (i.e. the steps a trans person may take to live in the gender with which they identify) positively affects positivity towards life, extraversion, ability to cope with stress, optimism about the future, self-reported health, social relations, self-esteem, body image, enjoyment of tasks, personal performance, job rewards and relations with colleagues. These relationships are found to be positively affected by gender affirmation and support from family members, peers, schools and workplaces, stigma prevention programs, coping intervention strategies, socioeconomic conditions, anti-discrimination policies, and positive actions. Also important are legislation including the ability to change one’s sex on government identification documents without having to undergo sex reassignment surgery, accessible and affordable transitioning resources, hormone therapy, surgical treatments, high-quality surgical techniques, adequate preparation and mental health support before and during transitioning, and proper follow-up care. Societal marginalization, family rejection, violations of human and political rights in health care, employment, housing and legal systems, gendered spaces, and internalization of stigma can negatively affect trans people’s well-being and integration in societies. The present study highlights that although transitioning itself can bring well-being adjustments, a transphobic environment may result in adverse well-being outcomes. Policy makers should aim to facilitate transitioning and create cultures of inclusion in different settings, such as schools, workplaces, health services and justice.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 19, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘30,000 minimum wages: The economic effects of collective bargaining extensions’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Portugal that while wages of continuing workers were increasing following an extension, formal employment and wage bills in the relevant sectors were falling.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 413, 2019

30,000 minimum wages: The economic effects of collective bargaining extensions –  Download PDF
by
Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro S. Martins

Author Abstract: Many governments extend the coverage of collective agreements to workers and employers that were not involved in their bargaining. These extensions may address coordination issues but may also distort competition by imposing sector-specific minimum wages and other work conditions that are not suitable for some firms and workers. In this paper, we analyze the impact of such extensions along several economic margins. Drawing on worker- and firm-level monthly data for Portugal, a country where extensions have been widespread, and the scattered timing of the extensions, we find that, while continuing workers experience wage increases following an extension, formal employment and wage bills in the relevant sectors fall, on average, by 2%. These results increase by about 25% across small firms and are driven by reduced hiring. In contrast, the employment and wage bills of independent contractors, who are not subject to labor law or collective bargaining, increases by over 1% following an extension.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 18, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Does Increased Teacher Accountability Decrease Leniency in Grading?’

A new GLO Discussion Paper assesses the effects of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 412, 2019

Does Increased Teacher Accountability Decrease Leniency in Grading? –  Download PDF
by
Puhani, Patrick A. & Yang, Philip

GLO Fellow Patrick A. Puhani

Author Abstract: Because accountability may improve the comparability that is compromised by lenient grading, we compare exit exam outcomes in the same schools before and after a policy change that increased teacher accountability by anchoring grading scales. In particular, using a large administrative dataset of 364,445 exit exam outcomes for 72,889 students, we assess the effect of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups. We find that implementation of these standards increases scoring differences between the two school types by about 25 percent.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 17, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Return, Circular, and Onward Migration Decisions in a Knowledge Society’

A new GLO Discussion Paper provides a state-of-the-art literature review about research that aims to explain the return, repeat, circular and onward migration of the highly-skilled migrants around the world.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 411, 2019

Return, Circular, and Onward Migration Decisions in a Knowledge Society –  Download PDF
by
Constant, Amelie F.

GLO Fellow Amelie Constant

Author Abstract: This chapter provides a state-of-the-art literature review about research that aims to explain the return, repeat, circular and onward migration of the highly-skilled migrants around the world. After it describes the status quo in the knowledge economy and the international race for talent, it presents the relevant theories and concepts of migration in the social sciences and how these theories accommodate the phenomena of return, repeat and onward migration. A special section is devoted to selection. The chapter then summarizes, evaluates, and juxtaposes existing empirical evidence related to theoretical predictions. Observables such as education, income, gender and home country as well as unobservables such as ability, social capital and negotiating skills play a strong role in influencing return, repeat and onward migration decisions. Yet, there is no consensus on the direction of the effect. The chapter discusses shortcomings and limitations along with policy lessons. It concludes by highlighting holes in the literature and the need for better data.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 11, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Gender identity minorities and workplace legislation’

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews gender identity and workplace legislation at national and international levels across Europe.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 410, 2019

Gender identity minorities and workplace legislation in Europe –  Download PDF
by Sidiropoulou, Katerina

GLO Fellow Katerina Sidiropoulou

Author Abstract: It is a fact that transgender people experience severe discrimination in various forms not only in their everyday lives but also in their working lives, especially when transitioning. It seems that Europe is slowly changing over the years as there are constant calls to tackle this complex issue by considering the inclusion of a third gender option, the abolition of any abusive practices, recommendations for legal redress in cases of violation, and a more transparent and self-determined legal recognition procedure. There are national laws which offer protection on the basis of gender identity at national and international levels. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of uniformity due to a number of unresolved matters such as uncertainty about who is covered, whether gender identity should be covered as a protected ground, what is required to gain a legal change of name and gender marker in official documents, who is responsible for authorization and uncertainty over the stages, nature and duration of the actual procedure. Fewer distressed transgender employees and transphobic incidents are observed when there is greater social acceptability, organizational effort and national intervention. Research and collective actions by movements, political leaders, academics, medical experts and non-governmental organizations are further required to minimize societal and employment exclusions of transgender people.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

October 9, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Intergenerational Income Mobility and Income Taxation’

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies through counterfactual analysis how income taxation affects the correlation of income across generations. Introducing a flat tax regime reduces the correlation in comparison to no taxes, which is enforced through child benefits and a progressive scheme.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 409, 2019

Intergenerational Income Mobility and Income Taxation –  Download PDF
by
Kurnaz, Musab & Soytas, Mehmet A

GLO Fellow Mehmet A. Soytas

Author Abstract: We study the impact of income taxation on intergenerational income correlation. We estimate a life cycle dynastic model and conduct counterfactual analysis to observe the effects of various tax regimes. Compared to a no tax environment, a flat tax regime reduces the correlation only by one percentage points. If the flat tax regime provides child benefits, the correlation additionally declines by four percentage points. Finally, if the taxes are progressive, the reduction, which is due to the increase in the fertility rate (quantity) and the decrease in the educational outcome of children (quality), is highly significant (seven percentage points).

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

October 7, 2019. GLO Discussion Paper of the Month September: Are asylum seekers more likely to work with more inclusive labor market access regulations?

The GLO Discussion Paper of the Month of September finds that inclusive labor market access regulations substantially increase the employment chances of asylum seekers, in particular if the language distance is short.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

GLO Discussion Paper of the Month: September

GLO Discussion Paper No. 396 , 2019

Are asylum seekers more likely to work with more inclusive labor market access regulations? 
by Slotwinski, Michaela & Stutzer, Alois & Uhlig, Roman 

GLO Fellows  Slotwinski, Michaela & Stutzer, Alois

Author Abstract: In the face of recent refugee migration, early integration of asylum seekers into the labor market has been proposed as an important mechanism for easing their economic and social lot in the short as well as in the long term. However, little is known about the policies that foster or hamper their participation in the labor market, in particular during the important initial period of their stay in the host country. In order to evaluate whether inclusive labor market policies increase the labor market participation of asylum seekers, we exploit the variation in asylum policies in Swiss cantons to which asylum seekers are as good as randomly allocated. During our study period from 2011 to 2014, the employment rate among asylum seekers varied between 0% and 30.2% across cantons. Our results indicate that labor market access regulations are responsible for a substantial proportion of these differences, in which an inclusive regime increases participation by 11 percentage points. The marginal effects are larger for asylum seekers who speak a language that is linguistically close to the one in their host canton.

GLO Discussion Papers of September 2019

408 The quasi-market of employment services in Italy –  Download PDF
by 
Pastore, Francesco

407 Depression in the House: The Effects of Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use in China –  Download PDF
by 
Liu, Yan & Chen, Xi & Yan, Zhijun

406 Assessing the Legal Value Added of Collective Bargaining Agreements –  Download PDF
by 
Martins, Pedro S. & Saraiva, Joana

405 The Arab Inequality Puzzle: The Role of Income Sources in Egypt and Tunisia –  Download PDF
by 
Krafft, Caroline & Davis, Elizabeth E.

404 Transition, height and well-being –  Download PDF
by 
Adserà, Alicia & Dalla Pozza, Francesca & Guriev, Sergei & Kleine-Rueschkamp, Lukas & Nikolova, Elena 

403 Career or flexible work arrangements? Gender differences in self-employment in a young market economy –  Download PDF
by Buttler, Dominik & Sierminska, Eva

402 Can Women’s Self-Help Groups Contribute to Sustainable Development? Evidence of Capability Changes from Northern India –  Download PDF
by Anand, Paul & Saxena, Swati & Gonzalez, Rolando & Dang, Hai-Anh H.

401 Is the future of work childless? Self-employment and fertility –  Download PDF
by Gonçalves, Judite & Martins, Pedro S.

400 Do Workers Benefit from Resource Booms in Their Home State? Evidence from the Fracking Era –  Download PDF
by Winters, John V. & Cai, Zhengyu & Maguire, Karen & Sengupta, Shruti

399 Delayed graduation and university dropout: A review of theoretical approaches –  Download PDF
by Aina, Carmen & Baici, Eliana & Casalone, Giorgia & Pastore, Francesco

398 Education-occupation mismatch of migrants in the Italian labour market: the effect of social networks –  Download PDF
by Van Wolleghem, Pierre Georges & De Angelis, Marina & Scicchitano, Sergio

397 Testing the employment and skill impact of new technologies: A survey and some methodological issues – Download PDF
by Barbieri, Laura & Mussida, Chiara & Piva, Mariacristina & Vivarelli, Marco

396 Are asylum seekers more likely to work with more inclusive labor market access regulations?  Download PDF
by Slotwinski, Michaela & Stutzer, Alois & Uhlig, Roman

395 Parental Migration, Investment in Children, and Children’s Non-cognitive Development: Evidence from Rural China – Download PDF
by Jiang, Hanchen & Yang, Xi

394Impact of Early Childcare on Immigrant Children’s Educational Performance – Download PDF
by Corazzini, Luca & Meschi, Elena & Pavese, Caterina

393 The gender wage gap among PhD holders: an empirical examination based on Italian data  Download PDF
by Alfano, Vincenzo & Cicatiello, Lorenzo & Gaeta, Giuseppe Lucio & Pinto, Mauro

392 The Impact of Family Size and Sibling Structure on the Great Mexico-U.S. Migration – Download PDF
by Bratti, Massimiliano & Fiore, Simona & Mendola, Mariapia

GLO DP Team
Senior Editors: Matloob Piracha (University of Kent) & GLO; Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University and Bonn University).
Managing Editor: Magdalena Ulceluse, University of GroningenDP@glabor.org  

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October 6, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘The quasi-market of employment services in Italy’

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies the shortcomings and merits of the first experiment of establishing a quasi-market in the provision of employment services.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 408, 2019

The quasi-market of employment services in Italy –  Download PDF
by
Pastore, Francesco

GLO Fellow Francesco Pastore

Author Abstract: This paper aims to study the shortcomings and merits of the first experiment of quasi-market in the provision of employment services: the Lombardy DUL (Dote Unica Lavoro). This system, which has inspired the 2015 national reform within the Jobs Act, has reactivated and revitalized the sector by providing important job opportunities to jobless workers. The system has the typical problems of quasi-markets in the provision of public services (lion’s share of private organizations; cherry picking; gaming). However, different expedients are devised in the program to minimize these shortcomings. The empirical analysis suggest that such phenomena if existent are at a physiological level. Analysis of the determinants of completing successfully the program provides non-trivial results as to, among others, the role organizations of different ownership type and of services provided.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

October 5, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Depression in the House: The Effects of Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use in China’

A new GLO Discussion Paper documents evidence on the impact of household air pollution on mental health in China.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 407, 2019

Depression in the House: The Effects of Household Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Use in China –  Download PDF
by
Liu, Yan & Chen, Xi & Yan, Zhijun

GLO Fellow Xi Chen

Author Abstract: While adverse health effects of ambient air pollution have been well documented, there is scarce evidence on the impact of household air pollution (HAP) on mental health. We investigated the causal link between HAP exposure from the use of solid fuel on depressive symptoms using a nationally representative dataset of middle-aged and older population in China. Employing the propensity match score method (PSM), matching and adjusting for potential confounders, we found significantly higher Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score and risk of depressive symptoms among solid fuel users than clean fuel users. These associations were especially stronger for older females who were less educated, of lower income, of higher body mass index, or had chronic diseases.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

October 4, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Assessing the Legal Value Added of Collective Bargaining Agreements’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that collective bargaining in Portugal has a relatively small role as a source of effective labor law.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 406, 2019

Assessing the Legal Value Added of Collective Bargaining Agreements –  Download PDF
by Martins, Pedro S. & Saraiva, Joana

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Author Abstract: How much value does collective bargaining add to the working conditions already established in general labour law? In this paper we propose a methodology to address this question: we compare the specific contents of collective agreements (except minimum wages) to their equivalent norms set by base law. We illustrate this approach by analysing in detail about 400 norms from six collective agreements in Portugal and then comparing them to the country’s Labour Code. We find that as many as 62% of those collective bargaining norms are exactly or virtually equal to the Labour Code; only 25% (an average of 16 norms per convention) are more favourable for the worker; and 12% (8) are more favourable for the employer. We conclude that collective bargaining in Portugal has a relatively small role as a source of effective labour law. We also present several potential explanations for our findings, including the wide range of base law, which may reduce the negotiating space of bargaining.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 3, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘The Arab Inequality Puzzle’

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals that based on standard measures, inequality in Egypt and Tunisia is not unusually high. This is qualified exploring a new dimension decomposing inequality by income sources.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

The Arab Inequality Puzzle: The Role of Income Sources in Egypt and Tunisia –  Download PDF
by Krafft, Caroline & Davis, Elizabeth E.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 405, 2019

GLO Fellow Caroline Krafft

Author Abstract: Egypt and Tunisia are perceived to have high levels of inequality, yet based on standard measures, inequality in these two countries is not unusually high. In this study we explore a new dimension of inequality in Egypt and Tunisia by using a more complete measure of income and decomposing inequality by income sources (factor components). We find that higher-income households have more income sources than lower-income ones. Informal wage work and earnings from household enterprises are more common in Egypt than Tunisia, while formal wage work, pensions, and social assistance are more common in Tunisia. Social assistance does little to offset income inequality in either country. Enterprise earnings (in Egypt) and agricultural earnings (in Tunisia) as well as rent and other capital income in both countries play a large role in inequality. High inequality in these non-wage income sources may help explain why inequality is perceived to be high.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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October 2, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Transition, height and well-being’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that cohorts born around the start of transition are shorter than their older or younger peers. While the transition process has been a traumatic experience, its negative impact has largely been overcome.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 404, 2019

Transition, height and well-being –  Download PDF
by Adserà, Alicia & Dalla Pozza, Francesca & Guriev, Sergei & Kleine-Rueschkamp, Lukas & Nikolova, Elena 

GLO Fellows Sergei Guriev & Elena Nikolova

Author Abstract: Using newly available data, we re-evaluate the impact of transition from plan to market on objective and subjective well-being. We find clear evidence of the high social cost of early transition reforms: cohorts born around the start of transition are shorter than their older or younger peers. The difference in height suggests that the first years of reform were accompanied by major deprivation. We provide suggestive evidence on the importance of three mechanisms which partially explain these results: the decline of GDP per capita, the deterioration of healthcare systems, and food scarcity. On the bright side, we find that cohorts that experienced transition in their infancy are now better educated and more satisfied with their lives than their counterparts. Taken together, our results imply that the transition process has been a traumatic experience, but that its negative impact has largely been overcome.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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September 29, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Career or flexible work arrangements? Gender differences in self-employment in a young market economy’

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals that in Poland women find independence at work and for those in professional occupations a job matching their competences as a desirable job attribute, while for men the lack of stress, a good salary and independence is key. Financial constraints strongly determine the entry into self-employment.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 403, 2019

Career or flexible work arrangements? Gender differences in self-employment in a young market economy –  Download PDF
by Buttler, Dominik & Sierminska, Eva

GLO Fellow Eva Sierminska

Author Abstract: We examine supply-side determinants of transition from the wage and salary sector to selfemployment of women and men living Poland. The empirical analysis is made possible due to a unique and under explored longitudinal survey — Social Diagnosis – that contains rare indicators such as job preferences and work events. The empirical results in the 2007-2015 period indicate that women and men transitioning into self-employment are differently motivated. In terms of job attributes, women find independence at work and for those in professional occupations a job matching their competences as a desirable job attribute, while for men the lack of stress, a good salary and independence is key. The analysis of work events and its influence on selfemployment weakly confirms the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In line with other research, our analysis indicates that financial constraints strongly determine the entry into self-employment. A key human capital determinant is past entrepreneurial experience indicating a slow, cautious transition process into self-employment.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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September 28, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Can Women’s Self-Help Groups Contribute to Sustainable Development? Evidence of Capability Changes from Northern India’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that a women’s self-help group program in India has contributed to sustainable development through improvements in the quality of life.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 402, 2019

Can Women’s Self-Help Groups Contribute to Sustainable Development? Evidence of Capability Changes from Northern India –  Download PDF
by Anand, Paul & Saxena, Swati & Gonzalez, Rolando & Dang, Hai-Anh H.

GLO Fellows Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: This paper investigates a women’s self-help group program with more than 1.5 million participants in one of the poorest rural areas of Northern India. The program has four streams of activity in micro-savings, agricultural enterprise training, health and nutrition education, and political participation. The paper considers whether there is any evidence that program membership is associated with quality of life improvement. Using new data on a variety of self-reported capability indicators from members and non-members, the paper estimates propensity score matching models and reports evidence of differences in some dimensions as well as significant benefits to those from the most disadvantaged groups—scheduled castes and tribes. The paper considers robustness and concludes that for some dimensions, there is evidence that the program has contributed to sustainable development through improvements in the quality of life.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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September 27, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Is the future of work childless? Self-employment and fertility’

Does the growth of self-employment and in particular gig work among females explain part of the observed declining fertility rates? A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Portugal no statistically significant differences in fertility between employees and self-employed women.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 401, 2019

Is the future of work childless? Self-employment and fertility –  Download PDF
by Gonçalves, Judite & Martins, Pedro S.

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Author Abstract: The growth of self-employment and in particular gig work may explain part of the declining fertility rates observed in many countries. This study examines this question drawing on longitudinal data to compare women’s fertility, proxied by maternity leave uptake, when self-employed or wage workers. It considers the case of Portugal, which allows to focus on structural aspects of work types, as fertility-related social protection there does not discriminate between self-employment and wage work. Results indicate that there are no statistically significant differences in fertility between employees and self-employed women. These findings highlight the importance of social protection for the self-employed, at least as far as their fertility is concerned.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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September 26, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Do Workers Benefit from Resource Booms in Their Home State? Evidence from the Fracking Era’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the fracking innovations who had revolutionized the United States oil and gas industry and facilitated a boom in energy production were responsible for positive effects on the labor markets, in particular outside the oil and gas industry.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 400, 2019

Do Workers Benefit from Resource Booms in Their Home State? Evidence from the Fracking Era –  Download PDF
by Winters, John V. & Cai, Zhengyu & Maguire, Karen & Sengupta, Shruti

GLO Fellows John Winters & Zhengyu Cai

Author Abstract: Fracking innovations revolutionized the United States oil and gas industry and facilitated a boom in energy production in states with oil and gas resources. This paper examines effects of oil and gas booms within a state on individual employment and earnings. To account for endogenous migration decisions, we instrument for oil and gas production in workers’ state of residence via the predicted percent of oil and gas employment in their state of birth. We find statistically significant and economically meaningful positive effects. The bulk of the effects accrue to workers employed outside the oil and gas industry indicating sizable spillovers.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

September 25, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Delayed graduation and university dropouts’

A new GLO Discussion Paper reviews the economic literature to understand delayed graduations and university dropouts.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non- governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 399, 2019

Delayed graduation and university dropout: A review of theoretical approaches –  Download PDF
by Aina, Carmen & Baici, Eliana & Casalone, Giorgia & Pastore, Francesco

GLO Fellow Francesco Pastore

Author Abstract: This paper surveys the theoretical approaches used in the literature to study the phenomenon of delayed graduation and university dropout. The classical human capital model does not contemplate failure, which the amended human capital model does. Delayed graduation and university dropout are two stages of the same decision repeated over the years to step aside or leave when the net returns to education expected ex ante are negative. Failure can also be taken as a signal of the real skills of individuals who do not succeed to gain a higher level of education. The job search approach underlines the role of positive/negative local labor market conditions as a factor able to explain choices of investment in human capital. Within the bargaining approach, the decision to delay graduation or dropout from university is related to bargaining within the family between parents and children: the former give their children better consumption opportunities in return for their presence at home. Although the amended human capital model is certainly the most compelling one, the other approaches help framing factors which are neglected in the human capital model, forming a well-structured body of knowledge to better understand the phenomenon under scrutiny, while also suggesting a set of policy tools to better control it.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

September 24, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Education-occupation mismatch of migrants: the effect of social networks’

A new GLO Discussion Paper studies for Italy how over-education affects migrants and it evaluates the role informal networks play in producing it. Migrants are more over-educated than natives, but the role of networks is equally relevant for both ethnic groups.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 398, 2019

Education-occupation mismatch of migrants in the Italian labour market: the effect of social networks –  Download PDF
by Van Wolleghem, Pierre Georges & De Angelis, Marina & Scicchitano, Sergio

GLO Fellow Sergio Scicchitano

Author Abstract: Whilst migration has become a structural feature of most European countries, the integration of foreigners in the labour market continues to raise concerns. Evidence across countries shows that migrants are more often over-educated than natives. Over the last years, scholarship has intended to capture the effect of informal networks on migrants’ over-education. Interestingly, no study has looked into the Italian case, yet a country for which the effect of networks on education-occupation mismatch is well documented. This article has two objectives: it assesses the extent to which over-education affects migrants and it evaluates the role informal networks play in producing it. We find that foreigners are more over-educated than natives but that the role of networks is consistent across the two groups. Empirical evidence is drawn from the application of quantitative and counter-factual methods to PLUS 2018 – Participation, Labour, Unemployment Survey.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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September 23, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Testing the employment and skill impact of new technologies’

A new GLO Discussion Paper providing an updated picture of main empirical evidence on the relationship between new technologies and employment.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 397, 2019

Testing the employment and skill impact of new technologies: A survey and some methodological issues – Download PDF
by Barbieri, Laura & Mussida, Chiara & Piva, Mariacristina & Vivarelli, Marco

GLO Fellows Mariacristina Piva & Marco Vivarelli

Author Abstract: The present technological revolution, characterized by the pervasive and growing presence of robots, automation, Artificial Intelligence and machine learning, is going to transform societies and economic systems. However, this is not the first technological revolution humankind has been facing, but it is probably the very first one with such an accelerated diffusion pace involving all the industrial sectors. Studying its mechanisms and consequences (will the world turn into a jobless society or not?), mainly considering the labor market dynamics, is a crucial matter. This paper aims at providing an updated picture of main empirical evidence on the relationship between new technologies and employment both in terms of overall consequences on the number of employees, tasks required, and wage/inequality effect.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

September 20, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Are asylum seekers more likely to work with more inclusive labor market access regulations?’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds for Switzerland that inclusive labor market policies increase the labor market participation of asylum seekers.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 396, 2019

Are asylum seekers more likely to work with more inclusive labor market access regulations?  Download PDF
by Slotwinski, Michaela & Stutzer, Alois & Uhlig, Roman

GLO Fellows Michaela Slotwinski & Alois Stutzer

Author Abstract: In the face of recent refugee migration, early integration of asylum seekers into the labor market has been proposed as an important mechanism for easing their economic and social lot in the short as well as in the long term. However, little is known about the policies that foster or hamper their participation in the labor market, in particular during the important initial period of their stay in the host country. In order to evaluate whether inclusive labor market policies increase the labor market participation of asylum seekers, we exploit the variation in asylum policies in Swiss cantons to which asylum seekers are as good as randomly allocated. During our study period from 2011 to 2014, the employment rate among asylum seekers varied between 0% and 30.2% across cantons. Our results indicate that labor market access regulations are responsible for a substantial proportion of these differences, in which an inclusive regime increases participation by 11 percentage points. The marginal effects are larger for asylum seekers who speak a language that is linguistically close to the one in their host canton.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

Ends;

September 12, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Parental Migration, Investment in Children, and Children’s Non-cognitive Development: Evidence from Rural China’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that parental migration has a significant negative effect on children’s non-cognitive development.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 395, 2019

Parental Migration, Investment in Children, and Children’s Non-cognitive Development: Evidence from Rural China – Download PDF
by Jiang, Hanchen & Yang, Xi

GLO Affiliate Hanchen Jiang

Author Abstract: Many children worldwide are left behind by parents who are migrating for work. While previous literature has studied the effect of parental migration on children’s educational outcomes and cognitive achievements, this study focuses on how parental migration affects children’s non-cognitive development. We use longitudinal data of children in rural China and adopt labor market conditions in destination provinces as instrumental variables for parental endogenous migration choice. We find that parental migration has a significant negative effect on children’s non-cognitive development. Differentiating inter- and intra-provincial migrations suggests that the negative effect of parental migration is mainly driven by inter-provincial migrations. We test four different mechanisms of how parental migration affects child development including parental financial inputs, parental time inputs, household bargaining, and children’s own time input. Our results provide insights into the relative importance of different mechanisms in determining the effect of parental migration on children’s non-cognitive skill formation.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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September 11,2019. GLO Discussion Paper of the Month August: Income Inequality and the Size of Government

The GLO Discussion Paper of the Month of August finds that government redistribution through expenditures is a useful tool capable of reducing net income inequality, and even more effectively than has been predicted by previous studies.   

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS, EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs downloadable for free.

GLO Discussion Paper of the Month: August

GLO Discussion Paper No. 381, 2019

Income Inequality and the Size of Government: A Causal Analysis – Download PDF
by Guzi, Martin & Kahanec, Martin  

GLO Fellows Martin Guzi & Martin Kahanec 

Author Abstract:  Expansion of the public sector and redistributive policies may reduce income inequality, but formal tests suffer from the problem of endogeneity of government size with respect to the distribution of income. Studying 30 European countries over the period 2004-2015, we apply instrumental variable estimation techniques to identify a causal relationship between income inequality and government size, measured as the government expenditure share in GDP. Using a novel instrument – the number of political parties in the ruling coalition – we find that accounting for the possible endogeneity of government size increases the magnitude of the estimated negative effects. Our findings thus suggest that much of the literature underestimates the true role of the government in attenuating income inequality. The estimated relationship between income inequality and government size persists in a series of robustness checks.

GLO Discussion Papers of August 2019

391 Turkish University Students’ Self-Perceptions of Aging: An Analysis Over Socio-Economic Dimensions – Download PDF
by Yumurtaci, Aynur & Bagis, Bilal

390 The Impact of Exposure to Missionaries on the English Language Proficiency and Earnings of Immigrants in the USA – Download PDF
by Larsen, Nicholas & Chiswick, Barry R.

389 On the road to integration? Immigrant’s demand for informal (& formal) education – Download PDF
by Coniglio, Nicola D. & Hoxhaj, Rezart & Jayet, Hubert

388 Divorce among European and Mexican Immigrants in the U.S – Download PDF
by Chiswick, Barry R. & Houseworth, Christina A

387 A Simple Solution to the Problem of Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives in Choo and Siow Marriage Market Model  Download PDF
by Gutierrez, Federico H.

386 The diversity of household assets holdings in the United States in 2007 and 2009: Measurement and determinants – Download PDF
by Sierminska, Eva M. & Silber, Jacques

385 The Impact of BMI on Mental Health: Further Evidence from Genetic Markers – Download PDF
by Amin, Vikesh & Flores, Carlos A. & Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso

384 Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: Correlation or Causal Relationship? – Download PDF
by Baert, Stijn & Vujić, Sunčica & Amez, Simon & Claeskens, Matteo & Daman, Thomas & Maeckelberghe, Arno & Omey, Eddy & De Marez, Lieven

383 The long-term effect of migration on economic inequality between EU Member States – Download PDF
by Ulceluse, Magdalena

382 Extreme Temperature and Extreme Violence across Age and Gender: Evidence from Russia  Download PDF
by Popova, Olga & Otrachshenko, Vladimir & Tavares, José

381 Income Inequality and the Size of Government: A Causal Analysis – Download PDF
by Guzi, Martin & Kahanec, Martin

380 The Yen Exchange Rate and the Hollowing Out of the Japanese Industry – Download PDF
by Belke, Ansgar & Volz, Ulrich

379 The effectiveness of restrictive immigration policies: the case of transitional arrangements  Download PDF
by Ulceluse, Magdalena & Kahanec, Martin

378 Foreign aid, bilateral asylum immigration and development – Download PDF
by Murat, Marina

377 Interest Rate Hysteresis in Macroeconomic Investment under Uncertainty – Download PDF
by Belke, Ansgar & Göcke, Matthias

376 Skill Gap, Mismatch, and the Dynamics of Italian Companies’ Productivity  Download PDF
by Fanti, Lucrezia & Guarascio, Dario & Tubiana, Matteo

375 Migration. Comparing political and cultural visions – Download PDF
by Bruni, Michele & Catani, Mario

374 Interest Rate Bands of Inaction and Play-Hysteresis in Domestic Investment – Evidence for the Euro Area – Download PDF
by Belke, Ansgar & Frenzel Baudisch, Coletta & Göcke, Matthias

373 Gender division of household labor: How does culture operate?  Download PDF
by Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina

372 Labor market policy and subjective well-being during the Great Recession  Download PDF
by Morgan, Robson & O’Connor, Kelsey J.

GLO DP Team
Senior Editors: Matloob Piracha (University of Kent) & GLO; Klaus F. Zimmermann (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University and Bonn University).
Managing Editor: Magdalena Ulceluse, University of GroningenDP@glabor.org  

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September 7, 2019. New GLO Discussion Paper on ‘Impact of Early Childcare on Immigrant Children’s Educational Performance’

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the effect of early childcare attendance differs between native and immigrant children. Early childcare seems to be particularly relevant for immigrant children from a disadvantaged background.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 394, 2019

Impact of Early Childcare on Immigrant Children’s Educational Performance– Download PDF
by Corazzini, Luca & Meschi, Elena & Pavese, Caterina

GLO Fellow Elena Meschi

Author Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of attending early childcare on second generation immigrant children’s cognitive outcomes. Our analysis draws on administrative data on the entire population of students in fifth grade collected by the Italian Institute for the Evaluation of the Educational System (INVALSI) for school years 2014/2015 to 2016/2017 matched to unique administrative records on the early childcare public available slots at the municipal level. Our identification strategy exploits cross-sectional and time series variation in the provision of early childcare service across Italian municipalities as an instrument for individual early childcare attendance. Our results point out that the effect of early childcare attendance differs between native and immigrant children. Although we find no effects for Italian children, our estimates show a positive and significant effect on literacy test scores for immigrant children of low educated mothers, which suggests that early childcare may be particularly relevant for immigrant children from a disadvantaged background.

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

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