Category Archives: Discussion Paper

Poverty Imputation in Contexts without Consumption Data: A Revisit with Further Refinements. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that adding household utility expenditures to a basic imputation model with household-level demographic and employment variables provides accurate estimates of poverty.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1226, 2023

Poverty Imputation in Contexts without Consumption Data: A Revisit with Further Refinements – Download PDF
by Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Kilic, Talip & Abanokova, Kseniya & Carletto, Calogero

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: Household consumption data are often unavailable, not fully collected, or incomparable over time in poorer countries. Survey-to-survey imputation has been increasingly employed to address these data gaps for poverty measurement, but its effective use requires standardized protocols. We refine existing poverty imputation models using 14 multi-topic household surveys conducted over the past decade in Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Vietnam. We find that adding household utility expenditures to a basic imputation model with household-level demographic and employment variables provides accurate estimates, which even fall within one standard error of the true poverty rates in many cases. Further adding geospatial variables improves accuracy, as does including additional community-level predictors (available from data in Vietnam) related to educational achievement, poverty, and asset wealth. Yet, within-country spatial heterogeneity exists, with certain models performing well for either urban areas or rural areas only. These results offer cost-saving inputs into future survey design.

Featured image: Mika-Baumeister-on-Unsplash

RELATED STUDY – free access:
Dang, HA.H., Verme, P. Estimating poverty for refugees in data-scarce contexts: an application of cross-survey imputation. Journal of Population Economics (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-022-00909-x OPEN ACCESS

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Ability composition in the class and the school performance of immigrant students. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Elena Meschi and Caterina Pavese.

A new GLO Discussion Paper using Italian data shows that while native students are mostly influenced by the average quality of their peers, immigrant children are detrimentally affected by the fraction of very low achievers in the classroom.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1225, 2023

Ability composition in the class and the school performance of immigrant students – Download PDF
by Meschi, Elena & Pavese, Caterina

GLO Fellow Elena Meschi

Author Abstract: Using longitudinal data from the Italian National Institute for the Evaluation of the Education System (INVALSI), this paper investigates whether the ability of classmates affects the educational attainment of immigrant students. We focus not only on the average quality of peers in the class, but we further investigate which part of the ability distribution of peers drives the effect, by assessing the role played by the extreme tails of the ability distribution. Our empirical strategy addresses students’ endogenous sorting into classes by exploiting the within-student across-subjects variation in achievements and the simultaneity problem by using predetermined measures of peers’ ability. We show that peers’ ability matters. While native students are mostly influenced by the average quality of their peers, immigrant children are detrimentally affected by the fraction of very low achievers in the classroom. Our findings provide valuable guidance to policymakers concerning the allocation of students to classes in order to foster immigrant students’ integration and learning.

Featured image: cdc on unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Women’s Education and Fertility in China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Zheyuan Zhang & GLO Fellow Zhong Zhao.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that an additional year of schooling lowered the number of children a woman would have by approximately 0.09 children, postponed the age of first childbirth by 0.7 years, and reduced the probability of having a second child or more children by 0.18 among those mothers whose first child was a girl.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1223, 2023

Women’s Education and Fertility in China – Download PDF
by Zhang, Zheyuan & Zhao, Zhong

GLO Affiliate Zheyuan Zhang & GLO Fellow Zhong Zhao

Zhong Zhao

Author Abstract: Using data from the China Family Panel Studies, this paper exploits the Compulsory Education Law of China implemented in the 1980s to empirically examine the causal impact of women’s education on fertility in rural China by difference-in-differences methods. The results show that an additional year of schooling lowered the number of children a woman would have by approximately 0.09 children, postponed the age of first childbirth by 0.7 years, and reduced the probability of having a second child or more children by 0.18 among those mothers whose first child was a girl. In addition to the income effect, these results are also partly explained by more educated women preferring quality to quantity of children, placing a greater value on leisure and no longer perceiving children as the sole focus in their lives.

Featured image: Rui Xu on Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The unemployment invariance hypothesis and the implications of added and discouraged worker effects in Latin America. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Ángel Maridueña-Larrea and GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals a clear gender bias towards the added worker effect for women, while the discouraged worker effect is confirmed for men.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1224, 2023

The unemployment invariance hypothesis and the implications of added and discouraged worker effects in Latin America – Download PDF
by Maridueña-Larrea, Ángel & Martín-Román, Ángel

GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román

Ángel L. Martín-Román

Author Abstract: This research explores the long-term equilibrium relationship between unemployment and labour force participation rates for six selected countries in Latin America at both aggregate and gender-disaggregated levels. Cointegration analysis focused on the study of time series is used to validate the unemployment invariance hypothesis and explore added and discouraged worker effects in depth. The results suggest mixed dynamics for the aggregate model; however, a clear gender bias is revealed towards the added worker effect for women, while the discouraged worker effect is confirmed for men. The validity of the unemployment invariance hypothesis in several countries appears to reflect some rigidities that prevent the improvement of nations’ labour markets, exposing issues that economic policies must strategically address.

Featured image: Jose-Antonio-Gallego-Vázquez-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Ethnic differences in intergenerational housing mobility in England and Wales. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Emma Gorman & Min Zhang and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals another dimension of ethnicity-based inequality now and in the future.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1222, 2023

Ethnic differences in intergenerational housing mobility in England and Wales – Download PDF
by Buscha, Franz & Gorman, Emma & Sturgis, Patrick & Zhang, Min

GLO Fellows Emma Gorman & Min Zhang

Emma Gorman

Author Abstract: In this paper we use linked Census data to document rates of intergenerational housing mobility across ethnic groups in England and Wales. While home ownership has declined across all ethnic groups, we find substantial differences between them, with Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi households experiencing the strongest intergenerational link between parent and child housing tenure, and Black individuals having the highest rates of downward housing mobility. In contrast, those of Indian origin have homeownership rates similar to White British families, and a weaker link between parent and child housing tenure. These patterns are likely, in turn, to exacerbate existing gradients in other dimensions of ethnicity-based inequality now and in the future.

Featured image: T.H. Chia on Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

A Historical Note on the Assimilation Rates of Foreign-Born Women in the U.S. – A new GLO Discussion Paper by Dan Dowhan and GLO Fellows Harriet Duleep & Xingfei Liu.

A new GLO Discussion Paper is challenging the perception that the quality of U.S. immigrants fell after the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1221, 2023

A Historical Note on the Assimilation Rates of Foreign-Born Women in the U.S – Download PDF
by Duleep, Harriet & Dowhan, Dan & Liu, Xingfei

GLO Fellows Harriet Duleep & Xingfei Liu

Harriet Orcutt Duleep

Author Abstract: Using historical, longitudinal data on individuals, we track the earnings of immigrant and U.S.-born women. Following individuals, instead of synthetic cohorts, avoids biases in earnings-growth estimates caused by compositional changes in the cohorts that are followed. The historical data contradict key predictions of the Family Investment Hypothesis, shed light on its genesis, and inform its further testing. Challenging the perception that the quality of U.S. immigrants fell after the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, immigrant women, as previously found for immigrant men, have high earnings growth.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The Evolution of Labor Market Disparities between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Men: 1970-2019. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Ioannis Kospentaris and GLO Fellow Leslie Stratton.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that Hispanics have gained substantially with employment and somewhat with earnings.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1220, 2023

The Evolution of Labor Market Disparities between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Men: 1970-2019 Download PDF
by Kospentaris, Ioannis & Stratton, Leslie S.

GLO Fellow Leslie Stratton

Leslie Stratton

Author Abstract: We describe how ethnic disparities in the labor market between prime aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men have evolved over the last 50 years. Using data from the March CPS, the Census, and the ACS, we examine several employment and earning outcomes. Hispanics have experienced sizable gains to employment: from a negative 2% prior to 1990 to a positive 4% after 2010 compared to non-Hispanics. In terms of earnings, Hispanics face a substantial negative disparity between 20% and 30% with some improvement after 2000. Most of the employment gain is driven by those with less than a high school degree, while the earnings disparity increases with education. Comparing Hispanic immigrants with natives reveals much of the employment and earnings gains are attributable to Hispanic immigrants, particularly immigrants not fluent in English.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Employers’ Associations, Worker Mobility, and Training. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Pedro Martins and Jonathan P. Thomas.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that firm membership in an employers’ association reduces worker mobility. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1219, 2023

Employers’ Associations, Worker Mobility, and Training – Download PDF
by Martins, Pedro S. & Thomas, Jonathan P.

GLO Fellow Pedro Martins

Petro Martins

Author Abstract: This paper studies firm-provided training in a context of potential worker mobility. We argue that such worker mobility may be reduced by employers’ associations (EAs) through no-poach agreements. First, we sketch a simple model to illustrate the impact of employer coordination on training. We then present supporting evidence from rich matched panel data, including firms’ EA affiliation and workers’ individual training levels. We find that workers’ mobility between firms in the same EA is considerably lower than mobility between equivalent firms not in the same EA. We also find that training provision by EA firms is considerably higher, even when drawing on within-employee variation and considering multiple dimensions of training. We argue that these results are consistent with a role played by EAs in reducing worker mobility.

Featured image: Employee-Training-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Finance, Trade, Man and Machines: A New-Ricardian Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Model. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Sugata Marjit & GLO Fellow Gouranga Das.

A new GLO Discussion Paper develops the model where the machine-intensive sector will expand at the expense of the labour-intensive sector suggesting the observed secular decline in the labour income share.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1218, 2023

Finance, Trade, Man and Machines: A New-Ricardian Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson Model – Download PDF
by Marjit, Sugata & Das, Gouranga G.

GLO Fellow Gouranga Das

Gouranga Das

Author Abstract: This paper attempts to build up a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson model of production and trade where capital is introduced outside the production process as a financial capital or credit as per the classical Ricardian wage fund framework. Stock of credit or financial capital as past savings, finances employment and machines or capital goods used in the process of production with Ricardian fixed coefficient technology. Availability of finance does not affect production or pattern of trade only nominal factor prices. International financial flows will not alter pattern of trade, but movement of labour and machines will. Such results change drastically when we consider a model with unemployment and finance dictates real outcomes much more than before. Introducing finance affects trade patterns with unemployment and especially with imperfect credit markets. In a two-period extension with credit demand being allocated for financing R&D expenditure, a rise in interest rate in the subsequent period will motivate perpetual tendencies to invest in machine via R&D so that machine-intensive sector will expand at the expense of the labour-intensive sector. This can account for the secular decline in labour income share as has been observed for some time. Our results are consistent with contemporary empirical evidence and have serious policy implications for role of financial development and quality of institutions for innovation and economic development. Numerical illustration corroborates this.

Featured image: Alex-Knight-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The Morbidity Costs of Air Pollution through the Lens of Health Spending in China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Xi Chen & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper is one of the first study investigating the causal evidence of the morbidity costs of fine particulates in a developing country, here in China.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1217, 2023

The Morbidity Costs of Air Pollution through the Lens of Health Spending in China – Download PDF
by Zhang, Xin & Zhang, Xun & Liu, Yuehua & Zhao, Xintong & Chen, Xi

GLO Fellow Xi Chen

Xi Chen

Author Abstract: This study is one of the first investigating the causal evidence of the morbidity costs of fine particulates (PM2.5) for all age cohorts in a developing country, using individual-level health spending data from a basic medical insurance program in Wuhan, China. Our instrumental variable (IV) approach uses thermal inversion to address potential endogeneity in PM2.5 concentrations and shows that PM2.5 imposes a significant impact on healthcare expenditures. The 2SLS estimates suggest that a 10 μg/m3 reduction in monthly average PM2.5 leads to a 2.36% decrease in the value of health spending and a 0.79% decline in the number of transactions in pharmacies and healthcare facilities. Also, this effect, largely driven by the increased spending in pharmacies, is more salient for males and children, as well as middle-aged and older adults. Moreover, our estimates may provide a lower bound to individuals’ willingness to pay, amounting to CNY 43.87 (or USD 7.09) per capita per year for a 10 μg/m3 reduction in PM2.5.

Featured image: Ella-Ivanescu-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

In Need of a Roof: Pandemic and Housing Vulnerability. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Kusum Mundra & Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that individuals in the USA overvalue their housing vulnerability during the recent Covid pandemic.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1216, 2023

In Need of a Roof: Pandemic and Housing Vulnerability – Download PDF
by Mundra, Kusum & Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth

GLO Fellows Kusum Mundra & Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Author Abstract: Housing is a basic need and is intricately connected to a household’s health and wellness. The current pandemic has exposed the housing vulnerability for certain subgroups of the population and further jeopardized these household’s health and stability. Using the Household Pulse Survey launched by the US Census Bureau since April 2020, we examine the correlates of housing vulnerability during the pandemic. We explore both subjective and objective measures of vulnerability. In addition, we explore heterogeneity in the evolution of housing vulnerability along demographic characteristics such as ethnicity and housing type (renter vs owner) during the pandemic. Our results suggest that individuals perception on their housing vulnerability in the immediate future is on average higher than the objective evaluation of their current vulnerability. In addition, not being employed, lower levels of education and household size all increase home vulnerability. We also find significant heterogeneity across race in the evolution of vulnerability during the pandemic (2000-2022) with a “chilling effect” on Asians.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Accuracy of self-reported private health insurance coverage. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Francis Mitrou and GLO Fellows Ha Nguyen, Huong Le & Luke Connelly.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that in Australia reporting errors are systematically correlated with individual and household characteristics, which is supportive of common reasons for misreporting. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1215, 2022

Accuracy of self-reported private health insurance coverage – Download PDF
by Nguyen, Ha Trong & Le, Huong Thu & Connelly, Luke & Mitrou, Francis

GLO Fellows Ha Nguyen, Huong Le & Luke Connelly

Author Abstract: Popular approaches to building data from unstructured text come with limitations, such as scalability, interpretability, replicability, and real-world applicability. These can be overcome with Context Rule Assisted Machine Learning (CRAML), a method and no-code suite of software tools that builds structured, labeled datasets which are accurate and reproducible. CRAML enables domain experts to access uncommon constructs within a document corpus in a low-resource, transparent, and flexible manner. CRAML produces document-level datasets for quantitative research and makes qualitative classification schemes scalable over large volumes of text. We demonstrate that the method is useful for bibliographic analysis, transparent analysis of proprietary data, and expert classification of any documents with any scheme. To demonstrate this process for building data from text with Machine Learning, we publish open-source resources: the software, a new public document corpus, and a replicable analysis to build an interpretable classifier of suspected “no poach” clauses in franchise documents.

Featured image: Mika-Baumeister-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Creating Data from Unstructured Text with Context Rule Assisted Machine Learning (CRAML). A new GLO Discussion Paper by Stephen Meisenbacher & GLO Fellow Peter Norlander.

A new GLO Discussion Paper demonstrates that CRAML produces document-level datasets for quantitative research and makes qualitative classification schemes scalable over large volumes of text.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1214, 2022

Creating Data from Unstructured Text with Context Rule Assisted Machine Learning (CRAML) – Download PDF
by Meisenbacher, Stephen & Norlander, Peter

GLO Fellow Peter Norlander

Author Abstract: Popular approaches to building data from unstructured text come with limitations, such as scalability, interpretability, replicability, and real-world applicability. These can be overcome with Context Rule Assisted Machine Learning (CRAML), a method and no-code suite of software tools that builds structured, labeled datasets which are accurate and reproducible. CRAML enables domain experts to access uncommon constructs within a document corpus in a low-resource, transparent, and flexible manner. CRAML produces document-level datasets for quantitative research and makes qualitative classification schemes scalable over large volumes of text. We demonstrate that the method is useful for bibliographic analysis, transparent analysis of proprietary data, and expert classification of any documents with any scheme. To demonstrate this process for building data from text with Machine Learning, we publish open-source resources: the software, a new public document corpus, and a replicable analysis to build an interpretable classifier of suspected “no poach” clauses in franchise documents.

Featured image: Mika-Baumeister-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Measuring Poverty Dynamics with Synthetic Panels Based on Repeated Cross-Sections. A new GLO Discussion paper by GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang & Peter F. Lanjouw.

A new GLO Discussion Paper develops and evaluates a procedure that works with as few as two survey rounds and produces point estimates of transitions along the welfare distribution at the more disaggregated household level. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1213, 2022

Measuring Poverty Dynamics with Synthetic Panels Based on Repeated Cross-Sections – Download PDF
by Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Lanjouw, Peter F.

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: Panel data are rarely available for developing countries. Departing from traditional pseudo-panel methods that require multiple rounds of cross-sectional data to study poverty mobility at the cohort level, we develop a procedure that works with as few as two survey rounds and produces point estimates of transitions along the welfare distribution at the more disaggregated household level. Validation using Monte Carlo simulations and real cross-sectional and actual panel survey data-from several countries, spanning different income levels and geographical regions-perform well under various deviations from model assumptions. The method could also inform investigation of other welfare outcome dynamics.

Featured image: Jose-Antonio-Gallego-Vázquez-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Inequality and Public Pension Entitlements. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Eva Sierminska & Marcin Wroński.

A new GLO Discussion Paper reveals that wealth inequality is significantly reduced after accounting for public pension wealth. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1212, 2022

Inequality and Public Pension Entitlements – Download PDF
by Sierminska, Eva & Wroński, Marcin

GLO Fellows Eva Sierminska & Marcin Wroński

Eva Sierminska

Author Abstract: The literature on wealth inequality is expanding very fast. Wealth is usually more concentrated than income. However, traditional measures of wealth inequality are based only on private wealth, and thus exclude public pension entitlements. In this chapter, the literature on the impact of public pension entitlements on wealth inequality is discussed. Empirical research shows, that wealth inequality is significantly reduced after accounting for public pension wealth. The value of Gini index is usually reduced by 20 – 40%.

Featured image: mark-timberlake-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Performance-related Pay and the UK Gender Pay Gap. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Melanie Jones and GLO Fellow Ezgi Kaya.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the gender gap in this pay is making a larger contribution than many work-related characteristics routinely included in studies of this nature.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1211, 2022

Performance-related Pay and the UK Gender Pay Gap – Download PDF
by Jones, Melanie & Kaya, Ezgi

GLO Fellow Ezgi Kaya

Ezgi Kaya

Author Abstract: This paper explores the role of performance-related pay to the UK gender pay gap at the mean and across the earnings distribution. Applying decomposition methods to data from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, we find that performance-related pay is an important but neglected factor, with the lower probability of females being employed in performance-related pay jobs explaining 12 per cent of the observed mean gender pay gap and making a larger contribution than many work-related characteristics routinely included in studies of this nature. Driven by its influence in the private sector, employment in performance-related pay jobs is more important in explaining the gender pay gap at the top end of the wage distribution, consistent with gender differences in receipt of bonus payments. Gender differences in the reward to performance-related pay jobs have a further, but more modest, role in widening the national and private sector mean gender pay gap.

Featured image: dainis-graveris-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Collective emotions and macro-level shocks: COVID-19 vs the Ukrainian war. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Stephanie Rossouw and Talita Greyling.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the same collective emotions are evoked following similar patterns over time regardless of whether it is a health or a war shock. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1210, 2022

Collective emotions and macro-level shocks: COVID-19 vs the Ukrainian war – Download PDF
by Rossouw, Stephanié & Greyling, Talita

GLO Fellows Stephanie Rossouw and Talita Greyling

Author Abstract: We know that when collective emotions are prolonged, it leads not only to action (which could be negative) but also to the formation of identity, culture, or an emotional climate. Therefore, policymakers must understand how collective emotions react to macro-level shocks to mitigate potentially violent and destructive outcomes. Given the above, our paper’s main aim is to determine the effect of macro-level shocks on collective emotions and the various stages they follow. To this end, we analyse the temporal evolution of different emotions from pre to post two different types of macro-level shocks; lockdown, a government-implemented regulation brought on by COVID-19 and the invasion of Ukraine. A secondary aim is to use narrative analysis to understand the public perceptions and concerns that lead to the observed emotional changes. To achieve these aims, we use a unique time series dataset derived from extracting tweets in real-time, filtering on specific keywords related to lockdowns (COVID-19) and the Ukrainian war for ten countries. Applying Natural Language Processing, we obtain these tweets underlying emotion scores and derive daily time series data per emotion. We compare the different emotional time series data to a counterfactual to derive changes from the norm. Additionally, we use topic modelling to explain the emotional changes. We find that the same collective emotions are evoked following similar patterns over time regardless of whether it is a health or a war shock. Specifically, we find fear is the predominant emotion before the shocks, and anger leads the emotions after the shocks, followed by sadness and fear.

Featured image: Stijn-Swinnen-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

EU-induced Financialisation and Its Impact on the Greek Wage Share, 1999-2021. A new GLO Discussion paper by GLO Fellow Giorgos Gouzoulis and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that financialisation is a key driver of wage bargaining outcomes.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1209, 2022

EU-induced Financialisation and Its Impact on the Greek Wage Share, 1999-2021 – Download PDF
by Gouzoulis, Giorgos & Iliopoulos, Panagiotis & Galanis, Giorgos

GLO Fellow Giorgos Gouzoulis

Giorgos Gouzoulis

Author Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of the income share of wage earners in the non-financial, private sectors of Greece since its introduction to the Eurozone in 1999. The main outcome of the integration of Greece into the Eurozone has been the financialisation of its economy, which has been particularly influential for households since it led to the rapid rise of household indebtedness. Building on recent research within industrial relations, sociology of work, and political economy, which shows that financialisation is a key driver of wage bargaining outcomes, we demonstrate that the relative size of the FIRE sectors and the increase in household debt have been negative drivers of the wage share in Greece over the last 22 years. Our findings also suggest that the employment-tied social benefits system and tertiary education provision have also been important determinants of workers’ income share.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Revisiting SME default predictors: The Omega Score. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Stjepan Srhoj and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that the incorporation of change in management, employee turnover, and mean employee tenure significantly improve the model’s predictive accuracy.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1207, 2022

Revisiting SME default predictors: The Omega Score – Download PDF
by Altman, Edward I. & Balzano, Marco & Giannozzi, Alessandro & Srhoj, Stjepan

GLO Fellow Stjepan Srhoj

Stjepan Srhoj

Author Abstract: SME default prediction is a long-standing issue in the finance and management literature. Proper estimates of the SME risk of failure can support policymakers in implementing restructuring policies, rating agencies and credit analytics firms in assessing creditworthiness, public and private investors in allocating funds, entrepreneurs in accessing funds, and managers in developing effective strategies. Drawing on the extant management literature, we argue that introducing management- and employee-related variables into SME prediction models can improve their predictive power. To test our hypotheses, we use a unique sample of SMEs and propose a novel and more accurate predictor of SME default, the Omega Score, developed by the Least Absolute Shortage and Shrinkage Operator (LASSO). Results were further confirmed through other machine-learning techniques. Beyond traditional financial ratios and payment behavior variables, our findings show that the incorporation of change in management, employee turnover, and mean employee tenure significantly improve the model’s predictive accuracy.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Capturing the Educational and Economic Impacts of School Closures in Poland. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Harry Patrinos and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that the learning loss during the Covid-19 lockdown was equal to more than one year of study.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1206, 2022

Capturing the Educational and Economic Impacts of School Closures in Poland Download PDF
by Gajderowicz, Tomasz & Jakubowski, Maciej & Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Wrona, Sylwia

GLO Fellow Harry Patrinos

Author Abstract: The effect of school closures in the spring of 2020 on the math, science, and reading skills of secondary school students in Poland is estimated. The COVID-19-induced school closures lasted 26 weeks in Poland, one of Europe’s longest periods of shutdown. Comparison of the learning outcomes with pre- and post-COVID-19 samples shows that the learning loss was equal to more than one year of study. Assuming a 45-year working life of the total affected population, the economic loss in future student earnings may amount to 7.2 percent of Poland’s gross domestic product.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Air Pollution and Entrepreneurship. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Liwen Guo, Zhiming Cheng, Massimiliano Tani & Xi Chen and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that suggests that exposure to higher intensity of air pollution in China lowers one’s proclivity for entrepreneurship.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1208, 2022

Air Pollution and Entrepreneurship Download PDF
by Guo, Liwen & Cheng, Zhiming & Tani, Massimiliano & Cook, Sarah & Zhao, Jiaqi & Chen, Xi

GLO Fellows Liwen Guo, Zhiming Cheng, Massimiliano Tani & Xi Chen

Author Abstract: We examine the causal effect of air pollution on an individual’s propensity for entrepreneurship in China. Our preferred model, which employs an instrumental variable approach to address endogeneity arising from sorting into entrepreneurship and locational choices, suggests that exposure to higher intensity of air pollution lowers one’s proclivity for entrepreneurship. A one standard deviation increase in air pollution leads to a 21.2% decrease in the propensity for entrepreneurship. We also find that self-efficacy is a channel in the relationship between air pollution and entrepreneurship. In addition, education moderates the relationship between air pollution and self-efficacy.

Featured image: Ella-Ivanescu-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Okun’s Law: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the temporary layoffs procedures (ERTE) on Spanish regions. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the law remains valid

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1205, 2022

Okun’s Law: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the temporary layoffs procedures (ERTE) on Spanish regions – Download PDF
by Porras-Arena, M. Sylvina & Martín-Román, Ángel L. & Dueñas Fernández, Diego & Llorente Heras, Raquel

GLO Fellow Ángel L. Martín-Román

Ángel L. Martín-Román

Author Abstract: Official statistics indicated a break in Okun’s law in all the Spanish regions due to the COVID-19 pandemic; however, herein, evidence of the validity of the law is shown. The temporary layoff procedures (ERTE) allowed many workers to maintain their jobs. From the productive point of view, the law remained in effect in the regions, showing a strong relationship between idle labour resources and economic activity, and from the social point of view, the apparent breakdown of the law can be interpreted as the implementation of a policy that mitigated the dramatic impact of the economic crisis.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Moving Up the Social Ladder? Wages of First- and Second-Generation Immigrants from Developing Countries. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Kevin Pineda-Hernández and GLO Fellows François Rycx & Melanie Volral.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that, whereas first-generation immigrants born in developing countries still experience a sizeable wage gap, there is no evidence for such a gap for their second-generation peers. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1204, 2022

Moving Up the Social Ladder? Wages of First- and Second-Generation Immigrants from Developing Countries – Download PDF
by Pineda-Hernández, Kevin & Rycx, François & Volral, Mélanie

GLO Fellows François Rycx & Melanie Volral

Author Abstract: As immigrants born in developing countries and their descendants represent a growing share of the working-age population in the developed world, their labour market integration constitutes a key factor for fostering economic development and social cohesion. Using a granular, matched employer-employee database of 1.3 million observations between 1999 and 2016, our weighted multilevel log-linear regressions first indicate that in Belgium, the overall wage gap between workers born in developed countries and workers originating from developing countries remains substantial: it reaches 15.7% and 13.5% for first- and second-generation immigrants, respectively. However, controlling for a wide range of observables (e.g. age, tenure, education, type of contract, occupation, firm-level collective agreement, firm fixed effects), we find that, whereas first-generation immigrants born in developing countries still experience a sizeable adjusted wage gap (2.7%), there is no evidence of an adjusted wage gap for their second-generation peers. Moreover, our reweighted, recentered influence function Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions agree with these findings. Indeed, while the overall wage gap for first-generation immigrants born in developing countries is driven by unfavourable human capital, low-paying occupational/sectoral characteristics, and a wage structure effect (e.g. wage discrimination), the wage gap for their second-generation peers is essentially explained by the fact that they are younger and have less tenure than workers born in developed countries. Furthermore, our results emphasize the significant moderating role of geographical origin, gender, and position in the wage distribution.

Featured image: joshua-hoehne-on-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Nowcasting national GDP growth using small business sales growth. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Cahit Guven.

A new GLO Discussion Paper shows that small business sales growth data can be used to predict the same period’s nominal gross domestic product growth in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1203, 2022

Nowcasting national GDP growth using small business sales growth – Download PDF
by Guven, Cahit

GLO Fellow Cahit Guven

Author Abstract: This study shows that the Xero Small Business Index (XSBI) monthly sales growth data can be used to predict the same period’s nominal gross domestic product (GDP) growth (year-on-year) in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.1 Assuming that the small business sector can be used as a representative sample of the national economy,2 this paper presents simple equations relating the small business real-time sales growth to GDP growth indicators. One of the frustrations of GDP measurement is that it takes statistical offices many weeks to collate GDP data. This means it is often released months after the end of the relevant time period. The relationship with XSBI sales growth data, which is published more timely, could prove useful for economists and analysts as an early indication of GDP results weeks ahead of the release of official data. This analysis does not relate to using XSBI data to forecast future GDP. Rather it is to take advantage of the timeliness of XSBI data, over the national accounts release, and provide an early indication of the GDP data after the end of the relevant month/quarter but before the official GDP data is released.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The empirics of technology, employment and occupations: lessons learned and challenges ahead. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Fabio Montobbio, Jacopo Staccioli, Maria Enrica Virgillito & Marco Vivarelli.

A new GLO Discussion Paper outlines the many lessons learned and the open challenges.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1202, 2022

The empirics of technology, employment and occupations: lessons learned and challenges ahead – Download PDF
by Montobbio, Fabio & Staccioli, Jacopo & Virgillito, Maria Enrica & Vivarelli, Marco

GLO Fellows Fabio Montobbio, Jacopo Staccioli, Maria Enrica Virgillito & Marco Vivarelli

Author Abstract: What have we learned, from the most recent years of debate and analysis, of the future of work being threatened by technology? This paper presents a critical review of the empirical literature and outlines both lessons learned and challenges ahead. Far from being fully exhaustive, the review intends to highlight common findings and main differences across economic studies. According to our reading of the literature, a few challenges-and also the common factors affecting heterogeneous outcomes across studies-still stand, including (i) the variable used as a proxy for technology, (ii) the level of aggregation of the analyses, (iii) the deep heterogeneity of different types of technologies and their adopted mix, (iv) the structural differences across adopters, and (v) the actual combination of the organisational practices in place at the establishment level in affecting net job creation/destruction and work reorganisation.

Featured image: Alex-Knight-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Epictetusian Rationality. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Gregory Ponthiere.

A new GLO Discussion Paper outlines that Epictetusian rationality provides a basis for mental freedom and happiness, and excludes the existence of prisoner’s dilemmas.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1201, 2022

Epictetusian Rationality – Download PDF
by Ponthiere, Gregory

GLO Fellow Gregory Ponthiere

Gregory Ponthiere

Author Abstract: According to Epictetus, mental freedom and happiness can be achieved by distinguishing between, on the one hand, things that are upon our control (our acts, opinions and desires), and, on the other hand, things that are not upon our control (our body, property, offi ces and reputation), and by wishing for nothing that is outside our control. This article proposes two accounts of Epictetus’s precept: the I account of Epictetus’s precept requires indifference between outcomes differing only on circumstances, whereas the IB account requires indifference between outcomes involving the best replies to circumstances. We study the implications of these precepts on the preference relation and on the existence of Epictetusian rationality. The I account implies that the preference relation satisfies in- dependence of circumstances, whereas the IB account implies robustness to dominated alternatives. Unlike the IB account, the I account rules out (counter)adaptive preferences. Finally, when examining game-theoretical implications of Epictetusian rationality, we show that the two accounts of Epictetus’s precept exclude the existence of prisoner’s dilemmas.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Contact Intensity, Unemployment and Finite Change – The Case of Entertainment Sector under Pandemic: A General Equilibrium Approach. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Sugata Marjit and GLO Fellow Gouranga Das.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the pandemic leads to vanishing occupations, underemployment and the elimination of fixed wage contracts.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1200, 2022

Contact Intensity, Unemployment and Finite Change – The Case of Entertainment Sector under Pandemic: A General Equilibrium Approach – Download PDF
by Marjit, Sugata & Das, Gouranga

GLO Fellow Gouranga Das

Gouranga Das

Author Abstract: This paper explores the short run, medium run and long run impact of pandemic on the contact intensive entertainment industry in terms of a simple general equilibrium model that can accommodate for unemployment and underemployment. Finite change as a response to large shocks may lead to n this industry, even when pandemic is over and leads to underemployment. Pandemic tends to eliminate fixed wage contracts in this sector for its survival, but over the longer run affects fundamental occupational choice in a society.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Industrial Relations and Unemployment Benefit Schemes in the Visegrad Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Martin Kahanec and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that state control over social policy remained very strong and shaped the dynamics of industrial relations.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1199, 2022

Industrial Relations and Unemployment Benefit Schemes in the Visegrad Countries during the COVID-19 Pandemic – Download PDF
by Lukáčová, Katarína & Kováčová, Lucia & Kahanec, Martin

GLO Fellow Martin Kahanec

Author Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing economic and technological adjustment increased the risk of unemployment, underemployment and skills mismatch across Europe. These increased risks highlighted the importance of national unemployment benefit schemes for income security. This article examines the role of industrial relations in shaping unemployment benefit regimes in the Visegrad countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. We adopted an actor-oriented approach based on desk research and 12 semi-structured interviews with the representatives of trade unions and employers in all the Visegrad countries. Our research showed that the capacities of the trade unions and employers’ associations to shape the unemployment benefit regimes were rather limited. State control over social policy remained very strong and shaped the dynamics of industrial relations, without inclusive involvement of social partners. National governments sought to implement measures to protect employment (mainly wage subsidies), rather than to reform existing unemployment support regimes.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The Impact of Immigration and Integration Policies On Immigrant-Native Labor Market Hierarchies. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Martin Guzi & Martin Kahanec and Lucia Mýtna Kureková.

A new GLO Discussion Paper suggests that designing less restrictive policies may help mitigate immigrant-native labor market hierarchies.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1198, 2022

The Impact of Immigration and Integration Policies On Immigrant-Native Labor Market Hierarchies – Download PDF
by Guzi, Martin & Kahanec, Martin & Mýtna Kureková, Lucia

GLO Fellows Martin Guzi & Martin Kahanec

Author Abstract: Across European Union (EU) labor markets, immigrant and native populations exhibit disparate labor market outcomes, signifying widespread labor market hierarchies. While significant resources have been invested in migration and integration policies, it remains unclear whether these contribute to or mitigate labor market hierarchies between natives and immigrants. Using a longitudinal model based on individual-level EU LFS and country-level DEMIG POLICY and POLMIG databases, we explore variation in changes of immigration and integration policies across Western EU member states to study how they are associated with labor market hierarchies in terms of unemployment and employment quality gaps between immigrant and native populations. Our findings imply that designing less restrictive policies may help mitigate immigrant-native labor market hierarchies by reducing existing labor market disadvantages of immigrants and making the most of their potential.

Featured image: joshua-hoehne-on-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Immigration, integration, and the informal economy in OECD countries. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Isabelle Chort & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper suggests that both immigrants and asylum seekers increase the informal sector at destination; while the effect is about four times larger for asylum seekers than for immigrants, both are very small.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1197, 2022

Immigration, integration, and the informal economy in OECD countries – Download PDF
by Ben Atta, Oussama & Chort, Isabelle & Senne, Jean Noël

GLO Fellow Isabelle Chort

Author Abstract: This article assesses the impact of immigrant and asylum seeker in ows on the size of the informal sector in host countries from a macroeconomic perspective. We use two indicators of informality provided by Medina and Schneider (2019) and Elgin and Oztunali (2012) combined with migration data from the OECD International Migration Database and data on asylum seeker ows from the UNHCR for the period 1997-2017. We estimate a first-difference model, instrumenting immigrant and asylum seeker ows by their predicted values derived from the estimation of a pseudo-gravity model. Results suggest that both immigrant and asylum seeker in ows increase the size of the informal sector at destination, but the size of the effect is very small: a one percentage point increase in the stock of immigrants as a share of population leads to an increase of the informal sector as a share of GDP of 0.05-0.06 percentage points. Unsurprisingly, the effect is about four times larger for asylum seeker ows, but remains economically insignificant. We investigate several potential channels, and find that integration policies do matter. We find no impact of imported norms or institutions, but rather that the effect is larger in destination countries with a large informal sector. Finally, we estimate a VAR model and find that the impact of in ows on informality is long-lasting.

Featured image: joshua-hoehne-on-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE) 16 articles. https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/36-1
Watch the videos of article presentations on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

JOPE has CiteScore 6.5 (2021, LINK) & Impact Factor 4.7 (2021, LINK)

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Air Pollution and Entrepreneurship. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Liwen Guo and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper suggests that exposure to higher intensity of air pollution lowers one’s proclivity for entrepreneurship.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1196, 2022

1196 Air Pollution and Entrepreneurship – Download PDF
by Guo, Liwen & Cheng, Zhiming & Tani, Massimiliano & Cook, Sarah & Zhao, Jiaqi & Chen, Xi

GLO Affiliate Liwen Guo & GLO Fellows Zhiming Cheng, Massimiliano Tani, Xi Chen

Author Abstract: We examine the causal effect of air pollution on an individual’s propensity for entrepreneurship in China. Our preferred model, which employs an instrumental variable approach to address endogeneity arising from sorting into entrepreneurship and locational choices, suggests that exposure to higher intensity of air pollution lowers one’s proclivity for entrepreneurship. We also find that industrial activity and self-efficacy mediate the relationship between air pollution and entrepreneurship. In addition, education and gender further moderate the relationship between air pollution and self-efficacy. In particular, air pollution negatively affects self-efficacy among the less-educated and females.

Featured image: Ella-Ivanescu-on-Unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of all 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Organized Labour and R&D: Evidence from Italy. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Fabio Landini and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the presence of second-level collective bargaining is associated with higher investments in R&D and that power relation is the main mechanism driving this result.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1195, 2022

Organized Labour and R&D: Evidence from Italy – Download PDF
by Cetrulo, Armanda & Cirillo, Valeria & Landini, Fabio

GLO Fellow Fabio Landini

Author Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of firm-level collective bargaining on firms’ investment in intangible assets and, specifically R&D. While standard hold-up theories predict a negative effect of organized labour on intangible investments, the inclusion of pay-for-performance schemes in complementary negotiation can actually invert the prediction. Moreover, the industrial relation literature suggests that, in presence of asymmetric power relations, firm-level collective bargaining can allow workers to make their voice heard and induce management to invest in assets that drive competition away from wages, including R&D. We exploit a rich and representative survey on Italian non-agricultural companies conducted by the National Institute for the Analysis of Public Policies (INAPP) to test these predictions. Baseline estimates suggest that the presence of second-level collective bargaining is associated with higher investments in R&D and that power relation is the main mechanism driving this result. These findings are confirmed also in a robustness check where we exploit size contingent legislation governing the creation of employee representative bodies involved in firm-level bargaining in a regression discontinuity design (RDD) framework. The implications for the design of innovation policy are discussed.

Featured image: david-kohler-unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of all 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

School commuting behaviors: A time-use exploration. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows José Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal, José Alberto Molina & Jorge Velilla.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds significant differences in school commuting times across countries.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1194, 2022

School commuting behaviors: A time-use exploration – Download PDF
by Giménez-Nadal, José Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto & Velilla, Jorge

GLO Fellows José Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal, José Alberto Molina & Jorge Velilla

Author Abstract: This paper explores school commuting behaviors of children who attend primary school, high-school, or University, using time use data for a set of countries obtained from the Multinational Time Use Study. We focus on the duration of school commutes, and how they correlate with individual and family characteristics. We also explore the transport modes used, and whether the commuting is done alone. The results show significant differences in school commuting times across countries. Furthermore, we find more time devoted to commuting, and higher rates of commuting done alone, as the schooling level of respondents increases. Means of transport are relatively similar within countries, although they change significantly across countries. This analysis is the first exploration of school, high-school, and University commuting behavior, using time use data that make the results comparable. Our analysis opens doors for future research, and may serve planners in terms of policies promoting specific student mobility.

Featured image: Element5-Digital-on-Unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of all 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Geographic Variation in Inpatient Care Utilization, Outcomes and Costs for Dementia Patients in China. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Xi Chen & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds regional gaps in equity and efficiency of dementia care and management for dementia patients.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1193, 2022

Geographic Variation in Inpatient Care Utilization, Outcomes and Costs for Dementia Patients in China – Download PDF
by Lin, Zhuoer & Ba, Fang & Allore, Heather & Liu, Gordon G. & Chen, Xi

GLO Fellow Xi Chen

Xi Chen

Author Abstract: Dementia leads public health issue worldwide. China has the largest population of adults living with dementia in the world, imposing increasing burdens on the public health and healthcare systems. Despite improved access to health services, inadequate and uneven dementia management remains common. We document the provincial-level geographic patterns in healthcare utilization, outcomes, and costs for patients hospitalized for dementia in China. Regional patterns demonstrate gaps in equity and efficiency of dementia care and management for dementia patients. Health policy and practices should consider geographic disparities in disease burden and healthcare provision to promote equitable allocation of resources for dementia care throughout China.

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of all 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Learning Inequalities during COVID-19: Evidence from Longitudinal Surveys from Sub-Saharan Africa. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the pandemic generally results in lower school enrolment rates.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1192, 2022

Learning Inequalities during COVID-19: Evidence from Longitudinal Surveys from Sub-Saharan Africa – Download PDF
by Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Oseni, Gbemisola & Zezza, Alberto & Abanokova, Kseniya

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: There is hardly any study on learning inequalities during the COVID-19 pandemic in a low-income, multi-country context. Analyzing 34 longitudinal household and phone survey rounds from Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda, we find that while countries exhibit heterogeneity, the pandemic generally results in lower school enrolment rates. We find that policies targeting individual household members are most effective for improving learning activities, followed by those targeting households, communities, and regions. Households with higher education levels or living standards or those in urban residences are more likely to engage their children in learning activities and more diverse types of learning activities. Furthermore, we find some evidence for a strong and positive relationship between public transfers and household head employment with learning activities for almost all the countries.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of all 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Robots, Meaning, and Self-Determination. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Milena Nikolova, Femke Cnossen & Boris Nikolaev.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that by deteriorating meaning and self-determination out of work, robotization will impact work-life beyond employment and wages.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1191, 2022

Robots, Meaning, and Self-Determination – Download PDF
by Nikolova, Milena & Cnossen, Femke & Nikolaev, Boris

GLO Fellows Milena Nikolova, Femke Cnossen & Boris Nikolaev

Author Abstract: We are the first to examine the impact of robotization on work meaningfulness and autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which are key for motivation and human flourishing at work. Using worker-level data from 13 industries in 20 European countries and OLS and instrumental variables estimations, we find that industry-level robotization harms all work quality aspects except competence. We also examine the moderating role of routine and cognitive tasks, skills and education, and age and gender. While we do not find evidence of moderation concerning work meaningfulness in any of our models, noteworthy differences emerge for autonomy. For instance, workers with repetitive and monotonous tasks drive the negative effects of robotization on autonomy, while social tasks and working with computers – a tool that provides worker independence – help workers derive autonomy and competence in industries and jobs that adopt robots. In addition, robotization increases the competence perceptions of men. Our results highlight that by deteriorating the opportunities to derive meaning and self-determination out of work, robotization will impact the present and the future of work above and beyond its consequences for employment and wages.

Featured image: Alex-Knight-on-Unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The Role of Social Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Human Capital Formation: Evidence from India. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Affiliate Isha Gupta.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the perception of social discrimination is a significant contributor to the gaps in cognitive outcomes and parental investment across Hindu castes. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1190, 2022

The Role of Social Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Human Capital Formation: Evidence from India – Download PDF
by Gupta, Isha

GLO Affiliate Isha Gupta

Author Abstract: This study examines the role of historically defined social identity in human capital development over time by focusing on a region from India where social identities are defined along the lines of castes and religious groups. It investigates the evolution of gaps across social groups in children’s cognitive outcomes and parental investment in children’s education from ages 5 to 15. Significant gaps in test scores and parental investment are found between children from lower and upper Hindu castes. These gaps, which originate early in childhood and persist throughout the 10 years of the study period, cannot be completely explained by the differences in socioeconomic status across social groups. Moreover, the perception of social discrimination is also found to be a significant contributor to the gaps in cognitive outcomes and parental investment across social groups. While parents’ perceived social discrimination is associated with lower parental investment throughout childhood, it is negatively associated with children’s cognitive outcomes only at later ages.

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Learning Inequalities during COVID-19: Evidence from Longitudinal Surveys from Sub-Saharan Africa. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the pandemic generally results in lower school enrolment rates moderated by education.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1192, 2022

Learning Inequalities during COVID-19: Evidence from Longitudinal Surveys from Sub-Saharan Africa – Download PDF
by Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Oseni, Gbemisola & Zezza, Alberto & Abanokova, Kseniya

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: There is hardly any study on learning inequalities during the COVID-19 pandemic in a low-income, multi-country context. Analyzing 34 longitudinal household and phone survey rounds from Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda, we find that while countries exhibit heterogeneity, the pandemic generally results in lower school enrolment rates. We find that policies targeting individual household members are most effective for improving learning activities, followed by those targeting households, communities, and regions. Households with higher education levels or living standards or those in urban residences are more likely to engage their children in learning activities and more diverse types of learning activities. Furthermore, we find some evidence for a strong and positive relationship between public transfers and household head employment with learning activities for almost all the countries.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

COVID-19 Pandemic and the Health and Well-being of Vulnerable People in Vietnam. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang & Minh Do.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that government policy responses were generally regarded as effective and indicates the need for a social protection database to identify the poor and the informal workers.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1184, 2022

COVID-19 Pandemic and the Health and Well-being of Vulnerable People in Vietnam – Download PDF
by Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Do, Minh N. N.

GLO Fellow Hai-Anh Dang

Hai-Anh Dang

Author Abstract: Despite a sizable population and modest status as a low middle-income country, Vietnam has recorded a low COVID-19 fatality rate that rivals those of richer countries with far larger spending on health. We offer an early review of the emerging literatures in public health and economics on the pandemic effects in Vietnam, with a specific focus on vulnerable population groups. Our review suggests that vulnerable workers were at more health risks than the general population. The pandemic reduced household income, increased the poverty rate, and worsened wage equality. It increased the proportion of below-minimum wage workers by 2.5 percentage points (i.e., 32 percent increase). While government policy responses were generally regarded as effective, the public support for these responses was essential for this success, particularly where there were stronger public participation in the political process. Our review also indicates the need for a social protection database to identify the poor and the informal workers to further enhance targeting efforts. Finally, we suggest future directions for research in the Vietnamese context.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue online on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The diffusion of digital skills across EU regions: Structural drivers and polarization dynamics. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Dario Guarascio & colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper provides evidence of a strong and persistent regional polarization in the adoption and deployment of digital skills.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1188, 2022

The diffusion of digital skills across EU regions: Structural drivers and polarization dynamics – Download PDF
by Caravella, Serenella & Cirillo, Valeria & Crespi, Francesco & Guarascio, Dario & Menghini, Mirko

GLO Fellow Dario Guarascio

Author Abstract: The digital transformation is an important driver of long-run productivity growth and, as such, it has the potential to promote a more inclusive and sustainable growth. However, digital capabilities, crucial to develop and govern new digital technologies, are unevenly distributed across European regions increasing the risk of divergence and polarization. By taking advantage of a set of original indicators capturing the level of digital skills in the regional workforce, this work analyzes the factors shaping the process of digital skill accumulation in the EU over the period 2011-2018. Relying on transition probability matrices and dynamic random effects probit models, we provide evidence of a strong and persistent regional polarization in the adoption and deployment of digital skills. Further, we investigate whether European Funds (European Regional Development Fund, Cohesion Funds, and European Social Funds) are capable to shape the digitalization process and to favor regional convergence.

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Sexual identity and Gender Gap in Leadership. A political intention experiment. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Evangelos Mourelatos and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the competitive nature of politics has a strong negative effect on women’s and homosexuals’ interest to run for a political office, but not on men’s and heterosexuals’ interest, hence significantly increasing the gender and sexual gap in leadership ambition.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1187, 2022

Sexual identity and Gender Gap in Leadership. A political intention experiment – Download PDF
by Mourelatos, Evangelos & Krimpas, George & Giotopoulos, Konstantinos

GLO Fellow Evangelos Mourelatos

Evangelos Mourelatos

Author Abstract: The underrepresentation of women and homosexuals in leadership positions has been well documented, but the grounds for this need further investigation. We conduct a field and an online experiment to test a prominent theory about the sources of the sexual and gender gap in political leadership ambition: women’s and homosexuals’ higher aversion to engage to competitive environments. Within an experimental political environment as a context for our research, we employ two distinct subject sample pools – highly politically active individuals and workers from an online labor market. By controlling for a variety of internal and external factors and preference-based indicators, we establish that there are fundamental sexual and gender behavioral differences, stemming from differences in underlying psychological abilities and differences due to the nature of electoral competition. We find that priming individuals to consider the competitive nature of politics has a strong negative effect on women’s and homosexuals’ interest to run for a political office, but not on men’s and heterosexuals’ interest, hence significantly increasing the gender and sexual gap in leadership ambition. While on the online experiment the gender gap holds, surprisingly, we found that homosexuals’ intention to participate in politics follows the opposite course.

Featured image: dainis-graveris-unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Are Long-Lived Persons Utility Monsters? A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Gregory Ponthiere.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that Nozick’s objection against utilitarianism turns out to be most relevant for real-world aging societies.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1186, 2022

Are Long-Lived Persons Utility Monsters? – Download PDF
by Ponthiere, Gregory

GLO Fellow Gregory Ponthiere

Grégory Ponthière

Author Abstract: Nozick’s “utility monster” – a being who is more efficient than other persons at transforming resources into well-being – is often regarded as deeply impossible, on the ground of the incapacity of a single person to have a life that is better than a large number of other lives. In this article, I defend a purely marginalist view of the “utility monster”, that is, that the primary characteristic of a “utility monster” is a higher sensitivity, at the margin, of well-being to resources, rather than a larger total well-being. I propose three purely marginalist accounts of “utility monster” and I introduce the related concept of “collective utility monster”, in order to account for the collective predation of (almost) all resources by a group of persons. I argue that, although a long-lived person, if taken separately, could hardly belong to the category of “utility monster”, a large group of long-lived persons can, under some conditions, belong to the category of “collective utility monster”. In the light of the increasingly large proportion of cohorts reaching very old ages nowadays, Nozick’s objection against utilitarianism turns out, after a thorough review, to be most relevant for real-world aging societies.

Featured image: mark-timberlake-unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Gender gaps in time devoted to Commuting: Evidence from Peru, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Juan Carlos Campaña & José Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that women in these countries devote less time to commuting than men.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1185, 2022 Juan Carlos Campaña

Gender gaps in time devoted to Commuting: Evidence from Peru, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia – Download PDF
by Campaña, Juan Carlos & Gimenez-Nadal, J. IgnacioJuan Carlos Campaña

GLO Fellows Juan Carlos Campaña & José Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal

Juan Carlos Campaña

Author Abstract: We analyze the relationship between gender and the time devoted to commuting by men and women in Latin American Countries. Using data from time surveys from Peru (2010), Ecuador (2012), Chile (2015) and Colombia (2012 and 2017), we observe in the four countries, that women devoted less time to this activity compared to men. We find that among the possible justifications for these gender gaps, it is important to consider the presence of children in the household, the hours of work and the type of employment of individuals. These results illustrate the importance of studying this topic in countries where the evidence is scarce mainly due to limitations in comparing the data between countries.

Featured image: dainis-graveris-unsplash

FORTHCOMING:
Vol. 36, Issue 1, January 2023: Meet the authors of 16 articles of this issue on December 1, 2022 during the GLO Global Conference 2022.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Maternity Leave. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Krishna Regmi & GLO Fellow Le Wang.

A new GLO Discussion Paper concludes from reviewing large literature that policy debates should not center around whether or not governments should offer paid leave; rather they should focus on how to design more efficient or optimal leave programs. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1184, 2022

Maternity Leave – Download PDF
by Regmi, Krishna & Wang, Le

GLO Fellow Le Wang

Le Wang

Author Abstract: Supporting working mothers to balance their work and childcare responsibilities is a central objective of maternal and parental leave policies. Nearly all countries offer some forms of maternity and family leave programs for childbearing on a national basis. This chapter reviews various types of leave policies available for working mothers (or parents) across countries and whether and how the policies affect women’s labor market outcomes, their own and children’s health, and child development. The leave policies can also influence women’s fertility choices, as well as household specialization and husbands’ labor supply. Recent studies also note the potential impacts on employers and coworkers of mothers who are on leave. One message that this chapter draws from the vast literature – with diverse and, in some instances, contradictory findings – is that policy debates should not center around whether or not governments should offer paid leave; rather they should focus on how to design more efficient or optimal leave programs. This chapter discusses some preliminary lessons for designing a leave program.

Featured image: christian-bowen-unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Evolution of Inequality in Nigeria: A Tale of Falling Inequality, Rising Poverty and Regional Heterogeneity. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere and John Odozi.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that inequality has indeed decreased and median consumption expenditure increased. At the same time, poverty incidence and severity increased precipitously. 

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1183, 2022

Evolution of Inequality in Nigeria: A Tale of Falling Inequality, Rising Poverty and Regional Heterogeneity – Download PDF
by Odozi, John & Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth

GLO Fellow Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere

 

Author Abstract: Recent research on Nigeria indicates declining income inequality. In contrast, anecdotal evidence suggests that only the upper class has benefited from economic growth in Nigeria overtime. The disconnect between these findings and anecdotal evidence, and the limitation in how inequality was estimated in the past literature are the motivation for our research. First we consider if inequality decreased in Nigeria between 2010 and 2018. We then examine how changes in inequality relate to changes in consumption and poverty. In addition, we examine whether there has been convergence in inequality and consumption across regions over this period? Leveraging data from the four waves of the Nigeria General Household Panel Survey (GHS) and carefully measuring inequality using consumption expenditure, our results suggest that inequality has decreased and median consumption expenditure increased. At the same time, poverty incidence and severity increased precipitously. Our findings suggest convergence in estimated inequality by regions but we do not find evidence of convergence across regions in consumption.

Featured image: Nigeria-Lagos-Muhammad-Taha-Ibrahim-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Green bonds’ reputation effect and its impact on the financing costs of the real estate sector. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Dorothea Schäfer and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that issuing green bonds lowers the firm’s cost of equity capital, while issuing non-green bonds has no effect on the cost of equity capital.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1182, 2022

Green bonds’ reputation effect and its impact on the financing costs of the real estate sector – Download PDF
by Petreski, Aleksandar & Schäfer, Dorothea & Stephan, Andreas

GLO Fellow Dorothea Schäfer

Dorothea Schäfer

Author Abstract: This paper explores the effect of a firm’s reputation of being a green bond issuer on its financing costs. Using a sample of 73 listed Swedish real estate companies issuing in total about 1500 bonds over the period from 2011 till 2021, differencein- difference analyses and instrumental variable estimations are applied to identify the causal impact of frequent green vis-à-vis frequent non-green bond issuing on a firm’s cost of capital and credit rating. The paper argues that it is repetitive issuance which lowers a firm’s cost of capital, while the effects from first or one-time green bond issuance is the opposite. In line with the reputation capital hypothesis, issuing green bonds even lowers the firm’s cost of equity capital, while issuing non-green bonds has no effect on the cost of equity capital.

Featured image: Jason-Leung-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Does the COVID-19 Pandemic Disproportionately Affect the Poor? Evidence from a Six-Country Survey. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows Hai-Anh Dang and Toan Luu Duc Huynh & Manh-Hung Nguyen.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that while the outbreak has no impacts on household income losses, it results in a 63-percent reduction in the expected own labor income for the second-poorest income quintile.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1181, 2022

Does the COVID-19 Pandemic Disproportionately Affect the Poor? Evidence from a Six-Country Survey – Download PDF
by Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Huynh, Toan L. D. & Nguyen, Manh-Hung

GLO Fellows Hai-Anh Dang and Toan Luu Duc Huynh

Author Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has wrought havocs on economies around the world. Yet, much needs to be learnt on the distributional impacts of the pandemic. We contribute new theoretical and empirical evidence on the distributional impacts of the pandemic on different income groups in a multi-country setting. Analyzing rich individual-level data from a six-country survey, we find that while the outbreak has no impacts on household income losses, it results in a 63-percent reduction in the expected own labor income for the second-poorest income quintile. The impacts of the pandemic are most noticeable in terms of savings, with all the four poorer income quintiles suffering reduced savings ranging between 5 and 7 percent compared to the richest income quintile. The poor are also less likely to change their behaviors, both in terms of immediate prevention measures against COVID-19 and healthy activities. We also find countries to exhibit heterogeneous impacts. The United Kingdom has the least household income loss and expected labor income loss, and the most savings. Japanese are least likely to adapt behavioral changes, but Chinese, Italians, and South Koreans wash their hands and wear a mask more often than Americans.

Featured image: Adli-Wahid-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

The Power of Public Insurance With Limited Benefits: Evidence from China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme. A new GLO Discussion Paper by Lin Lin & GLO Affiliate Xianhua Zai.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that the effectiveness of the scheme for inpatient care use has increased significantly.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1180, 2022

The Power of Public Insurance With Limited Benefits: Evidence from China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme – Download PDF
by Lin, Lin & Zai, Xianhua

GLO Affiliate Xianhua Zai

Xianhua Zai

Author Abstract: Low-income people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have limited access to healthcare when they are sick. To address this issue, the governments of LMICs have initiated health insurance programs that target these poor populations. However, the health benefits these programs provide are often limited due to resource constraints in LMICs. In this paper, we study the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a limited coverage insurance program for rural residents in China, to explore its effectiveness, and the mechanisms that contribute to its successes, if any. In a plausibly random design, we exploit the variation in provincial NCMS enrollment rate 2004-2011 to identify its average treatment effect. We find that although the NCMS’ coverage is limited, its effect on inpatient care use increases significantly. This increase is mainly driven by inpatient care delivered by primary care providers, which has the most generous reimbursement rates. In addition, we show that half of the increase in inpatient care use is attributable to the NCMS’ healthcare investment in rural providers. For outpatient services, while the total effect is not statistically significant, we find that the utilization pattern across providers is consistent with the differential payment design of the NCMS: rural residents use more outpatient care provided by primary care institutions where they can get higher reimbursement rates. In addition, we show evidence that rural residents substitute outpatient services in hospitals for that in township health centers. Lastly, results on health expenditure and health outcomes indicate that the introduction of the NCMS does not affect out-of-pocket medical expense or all-cause mortality rates among rural residents, but it does reduce mortality for specific diseases such as AIDS and infectious disease.

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Revisiting excess commuting and self-employment: The case of Latin America. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellows José Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal, Jorge Velilla & Raquel Ortega-Lapiedra.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that employees spend about 8.2 more minutes commuting to work than their self-employed counterparts.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1179, 2022

Revisiting excess commuting and self-employment: The case of Latin America – Download PDF
by Giménez-Nadal, José Ignacio & Velilla, Jorge & Ortega, Raquel

GLO Fellows José Ignacio Gimenez-Nadal, Jorge Velilla & Raquel Ortega-Lapiedra

Jorge Velilla

Author Abstract: This paper analyzes the commuting behavior of employee and self-employed workers in urban areas of eleven Latin American countries, within a theoretical framework that identifies employees’ excess commuting as different from self-employed workers’ commuting. Using data from the ECAF data, results show that employees spend about 8.2 more minutes commuting to work than their self-employed counterparts, net of observable characteristics, a difference of around 18.5% of the employees’ commuting time. This difference is qualitatively robust across the eleven countries and is concentrated in commutes by public transit, but it is not explained by differences in access to public transit services between the two groups. This analysis is a first exploration of self-employed and employee workers’ commuting time in Latin American countries. By analyzing differences in commuting time between these two groups of Latin American workers, our analysis may serve to guide future planning programs.

Featured image: Manuel-Lardizabal-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;

Inside the NBA Bubble: How Black Players Performed Better without Fans. A new GLO Discussion Paper by GLO Fellow Mauro Caselli and colleagues.

A new GLO Discussion Paper finds that in the NBA professional basketball league in North America the performance of Black players improved significantly with the absence of fans vis-à-vis White players.

GLO Discussion Paper No. 1178, 2022

Inside the NBA Bubble: How Black Players Performed Better without Fans – Download PDF
by Caselli, Mauro & Falco, Paolo & Somekh, Babak

GLO Fellow Mauro Caselli

Author Abstract: In the NBA, predominantly Black players play in front of predominantly non-Black fans. Using the ‘NBA bubble’, a natural experiment induced by COVID-19, we show that the performance of Black players improved significantly with the absence of fans vis-à-vis White players. This is consistent with Black athletes being negatively affected by racist pressure from mostly non-Black audiences. We dispel several alternative hypotheses. Beyond hurting individual players, fans’ behavior causes significant economic damage to the NBA by lowering the quality of the game.

Featured image: kylie-osullivan-on-Unsplash

PUBLISHED
Vol. 35, Issue 4, October 2022: Journal of Population Economics (JOPE): 15 articles https://link.springer.com/journal/148/volumes-and-issues/35-4
CiteScore of JOPE moves up from 3.9 (2020) to 6.5 (2021). LINK
Similar, its Impact Factor is now 4.7 (2021) after 2.8 (2020)! LINK

GLO Discussion Papers are research and policy papers of the GLO Network which are widely circulated to encourage discussion. Provided in cooperation with EconStor, a service of the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, GLO Discussion Papers are among others listed in RePEc (see IDEAS,  EconPapers)Complete list of all GLO DPs – downloadable for free.

The Global Labor Organization (GLO) is an independent, non-partisan and non-governmental organization that functions as an international network and virtual platform to stimulate global research, debate and collaboration.

Ends;